As one end of the damper displaces with respect to the other, the viscoelastic material is sheared resulting in the development of heat which is dissipated to the environment. All the proposed literature covers the theory describin... ... middle of paper ... ...representing the yielding structure. Further details are presented for the calculation of the properties for the multi degree-of-freedom system. This method has been incorporated in the American guidelines for new buildings (NEHRP 2000 – FEMA 368). American codes include guidelines for incorporation of viscous and viscoelastic dampers in new and existing buldings since 2000 (FEMA 368, 369, 450) and 1997 (FEMA 273, 274, 356, 357) respectively, by using either linear static or linear dynamic procedure.
 This application of Newton’s Third Law generates the net lift force that the blade needs in order to rotate the shaft. The size and material of the blades contributes greatly to the amount of power that turbines can produce. Materials that can produce the lowest amount of rotational inertia, like aluminum, are optimal because they allow the wind turbines to accelerate quickly if the wind speed increases. Low-mass materials are also ideal in order to control blade weight.  Larger blades with larger weights are constrained by gravity and will experience greater axial and tensile stresses.
Moreover, direction of wind depend on the climate zone have influence on the size and situation of windows. As result of direction of prevailing wind that is from west in Famagusta (Ozay, 2005) so, windows in west face are noticeable. And in North side, windows often are suitable for natural ventilation (... ... middle of paper ... ...d reducing heat losses. Homogeneous makes by aero gels and glass fibres, that these materials are useful for higher temperature (Kaushika, et. al., 2003).
Because damaging earthquakes are rare, economics dictate that damage to buildings is expected and acceptable provided collapse is avoided. Earthquake forces are generated by the inertia of buildings as they dynamically respond to ground motion. The dynamic nature of the response makes earthquake loadings markedly different from other building loads. Designer temptation to consider earthquakes as ‘a very strong wind’ is a trap that must be avoided since the dynamic characteristics of the building are fundamental to the structural response and thus the earthquake induced actions are able to be mitigated by design. The concept of dynamic considerations of buildings is one which sometimes generates unease and uncertainty within the designer.
These structures are already made in the production units and need to be assembled at the site. Another advancement that the nation has made is the use of seismic resistant technology for the building up of houses. The high rise buildings are buttressed with braces and shock absorbers which are bolted in the inner steel structures. The masonry walls of the middle rise buildings are reinforced with diagonal steel beams and sprayed concretes. They are isolated from the foundations by steel and rubber pads and dampers are inserted to absorb shocks.
Rolling pads that move 2. The ground will shake, building will stay in place Thesis statement: Base Isolation is the best technique Than othersfor earthquake resistant buildings.For the efficient,and The cost Body: *Active Control devices its control the extra energy of the earhquakes 1. Widely used in aerospace structures 2. Watches for the structures response to the earthquakes and have control against the earthquake. 3.
(Columbia Encyclopedia) Earthquakes vary in their intensity and duration. Often times they are strong enough to cause massive destriction. Tall buildings often suffer as a result of these natural disasters. In recent years this has become a larger and larger threat with both the number of large buildings, and their number of occupants increasing. In an effort to try to minimize the damage caused by earthquakes many some engineers focus primarily on designing and constructing earthquake resistant buildings.
One of the best solutions is to make the buildings or structures earthquake resistant. There are many different ways to make the damage to structures less of a problem but the idea I chose was invented by a Japanese inventor, Shoichi Sakamoto. He created Air Danshin. The idea is that there is an airbag under the house. When there isn’t an earthquake, the airbag is deflated under the house.
Crashworthiness of a material is expressed in terms of its specific energy absorption, Es=F/D, where F is the mean crush stress and D is the density of the composite material. In order to protect passengers during an impact, a structure based on strength and stiffness is far for being optimal. Rather, the structure should collapse in a well defined deformation zone and keep the forces well below dangerous accelerations. However, since the amount of absorbed energy equals the area under the load deflection curve, the two above mentioned criteria are somewhat contradictory, thus showing that, it is not only important to know how much energy is absorbed but also how it is absorbed, i.e., how inertial loads are transferred from impact point to panel supports. Therefore, in addition to designing structures able to withstand static and fatigue loads, structures have to be designed to allow maximum energy absorption during impact.