Throughout the construction industry, technology plays a role to help ease the completion of a project to all of the parties involved. The amount of technology application in the industry supports the belief that technology has a positive impact on project productivity. One of the main materials used in the construction industry that surrounds us every day, in which we overlook, is concrete. Concrete is an art form, in which it takes time and talent in order for it to be used efficiently, to produce its high strength and longevity. However, the downfall of this material is that it is extremely costly and nearly impossible to form it to an aesthetically pleasing surface. In spite of this, what if I told you that there is hope? That the dream of a material made of concrete, producing the same qualities, can be formed to any shape, and used anywhere was a reality.
What is Concrete?
Concrete is a composite building material consist of aggregate bonded together with a fluidic cement which gets harden over time. Most use of the term "concrete" refers to Portland cement concrete or to concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as ciment fondu. However, road surfaces are also a type of concrete, known as "asphaltic concrete", where the cement material is bitumen.
1. Introduction .....3-4
2. Proportions and Strength 4-5
3. Admixtures .......5
4. Aggregate .
Most people may not realise but concrete plays a vital part in our lives daily. It shapes and creates the built environment in which we are surrounded by, such as schools, bridges, roads, housing, hospitals, dams and so much mores. Concrete is the most used man made material in the world, averaging around 3 tonnes annually for each person. In comparison with other building materials such as wood, steel, plastic and aluminium, over twice as much concrete is used globally than any of these materials. It is the material choice of most purposes due to its strength, durability, thermal mass and its cost.
Concrete is one of the world’s most popular construction materials. Some six billion tonnes of concrete is produced each year in the world, making it approximately one ton of concrete for every human being per year (Fardis, 2012, p.116). However, the lifecycle of concrete does not make it the most sustainable building material at the moment. Because of limited natural resources, concerns over green house gases, and landfill problems, concrete production is being cut-back, or at least cannot be increased to keep up with population increase. In this essay, I will look at what makes concrete an unsustainable material and possible solutions to make concrete a more sustainable material.
Concrete is a building material that has lasted the test of time, being used since before the Roman Empire to present day. A ceramic composite made of aggregate and some type of binding matrix, concrete has a wide array of different types and applications. Pervious concrete, also know as porous concrete, no-fines, permeable, or enhanced porosity concrete (EPC), is a type of concrete that allows water to flow through it at incredibly high rates due to its particular composition and structure. Due to this unique property, the EPA has proposed pervious concrete be used as a substitute for typical concrete found in roads, parking lots, roofs, and other open areas across the United States to reduce the amount of runoff that must be processed by water treatment plants. With proper installation and care pervious concrete can reduce the annual runoff volume by up to 80 percent (Dauphin country conservation district). Of course there are benefits and trade offs in using one material over another. The aim of this paper is to briefly look at the unique structure of pervious concrete, and then discuss the distinguishing properties including: compressive strength, percolation rate, durability, and acoustic absorption, of pervious concrete.
The usage of concrete was explored by the Early Christian and Roman architects but fell out of use throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance period. The material was only fully explored again in the later half of the 19th century but only for mundane purposes where the material was cheap, easy to work with, and versatile, but most importantly it’s fireproof characteristic. In 1870, the idea of reinforcing the concrete was born; steel rods were to be inserted to increase its strength. Taking this principle, Ernest Ransome (America) and Francois Hennebique (France) both developed frame systems. From this, open plan workspaces with large windows were created and it was proved to be well accommodated where fire had previously been a danger. Hennebique’s system used slim vertical posts, thin parallel beams on brackets and floor slabs; this resulted somewhat like a timber frame. Concrete was one of the most flexible materials and one with a least determining form. Concrete relied on its mould and the intelligence of its designer to give it aesthetic qualities for one to appreciate it. This became much more obvious when the architects of the last 19th century attempted to discover a style based on this material.
In these cases, such as building a reservoir, a huge number of concrete trucks are generally brought in in a caravan, and they pour their concrete into the forms that have been constructed onsite. In some cases, this order will put a concrete plant out of commission for a period of time due to the demand, and as such it must obviously be coordinated ahead of time.
...ing cold weather problems. These two innovations changed the exterior walls from ones that carried their own loads to ones that bore integrally with the rest of the system. This created an ability to use concrete as the framing with a curtain wall sealing the building from external forces . Another innovation, which led the construction industry away from its traditional construction techniques of imitating steel and wood, was Robert Maillart's use of the floor slab instead of beams and girders to carry loads. These breakthroughs, along with concrete's ability to resist fire, carry heavy loads, and dampen noise, made it a good choice for factory and apartment buildings at the turn of the century. The difficulty for inventors was then to convince the public that its uses went beyond low-rise apartment buildings. Like steel, it could also soar toward the sky.
Almost no other material manages to carry such contradictory associations. Stigmatized on one hand, celebrated on the other, it evokes highly diverse reactions this material is cement. Cement is a finely ground powder binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together, when mixed with water forms a hardening paste of calcium silicate hydrates and calcium aluminates hydrates. Cement is used in mortar and concrete (bulk rock-like building material made from aggregate, sand, and water). By modifying the raw material mix and the temperatures utilized in manufacturing, compositional variations can be achieved to produce cements with different properties. Cement, chemically speaking, is a product including lime as the