First explain the differences between low incidence disabilities (LID) and High Incidence Disabilities (HID). Then discuss three specific transition services for either LID or HID in 2015 and why they are viable for this population. Then, explain 2 specific local/state and/or federal regulations that are in place to support this population of students with disabilities? Be Specific!
The Individuals with Disabilities Act, 2004 (IDEA), has 14 different categories of disabilities (IDEA Partnership, 2012). Students with disabilities can be placed into two more distinct groups which are high incidence disabilities or HID and low incidence disabilities or LID. IDEA defines low incidence disabilities as those students with visual, hearing or significant cognitive impairment (Outcome Data, 2006). These students need personal that are highly trained in specialized skill and knowledge to provide early interventions and education. Those with LID account for less than one percent of the school population (Outcome Data, 2006). Students that fall into this category are usually educated outside of the general education classroom for part of the school day.
Students with high incidence disabilities or HID are the most common in schools. The group of high incidence disabilities include students with emotional, behavioral or mild intellectual disabilities as well as those with autism, speech or language impairments and attention deficit disorder (Gage et al., 2012). Students with HID are usually taught within the general education classroom. There are either co-teachers or a resource teacher that takes the students out of the general education classroom for short periods of time to work in a more individual, structured environment (Per...
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...here are specific procedures that must be followed in writing and developing the students’ IEP. This act or regulation provides that the student is educated to meet his/her needs and that they are able to have skills necessary to function in post school settings (ADA, n.d.).
Students with disabilities can have a smooth transition from school to post school activities. The transitional services and regulations provided by the government guarantee that students will be provided with the education, social skills and community support needed for the transition to be flawless and successful. There are many parts involved in the education, implementation and transition of students with disabilities. The parents, teachers, resource teachers, outside agencies and community partners all are involved to help transition the student into the post school world.
The child with a learning disability is entitled under IDEA to receive the same quality of education and other services which are entitled to students without disabilities. The law states that the facilities for both kinds of students must be comparable and the necessary training materials and the appropriate equipment to impart the education must be provided to the student (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), n.d.).
It is required that the student be placed in the setting most like that of typical peers in which they can succeed when provided with needed supports and services (Friend, 2014). In other words, children with disabilities are to be educated with children who are not disabled to the maximum extent appropriate. Removal may only occur when education in regular classes, with the use of supplementary aids and services, cannot be achieved satisfactorily (Yell, 2006).
Students with disabilities who are in self-contained classrooms struggle with many issues pertaining to independence. In their classrooms they become more dependent on their teachers and classroom peers (Jones & Hensley, 2012). This is the opposite of what is needed for these students (Jones & Hensley, 2012). Learning is a full circle process, which encompasses more than academics. In order for students with disabilities to obtain a complete education, inclusion in social dynamics should be an integral part of their learning environment (Arnon, Shamai, & Ilatov, 2008).
Students with disabilities are not the only students who can benefit from creative tasks, projects, and assessments. A positive and caring approach to dealing with all student regardless of culture, disability or any other thing that make then different from the norm is key to the success of all concerned.
Similar to IDEA, is Section 504 of the Act. Students are eligible for Section 504 if they have a "physical or mental impairment which substantially limits a major life activity." Section 504 also requires schools to meet certain evaluation criteria in order to assess how a student's disability affects the child's educational performance.
Students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom may have challenges that require special attention. If the teacher is able to identify the disabilities and the features associated with them then the teacher can tailor the lessons to meet the needs of the students. These may include differentiated instruction and facilitating an inclusive classroom which will see inclusive strategies employed that will cater to the needs of students with learning disabilities. These inclusive strategies can range from individualized learning programs to team and co-teaching. In some cases, the teacher can arrange for a special education teacher or arrange for a pull out program to assist students who have learning disabilities. Strategies that will also cater to learning disabilities may also include the use of technology. According to Ford 2013 ‘In some situations it may be best for students with LD to be taught in separate pull out classrooms with a teacher who can provide targeted skill instruction in areas where a student is struggling.’ ‘When provided appropriate support within this setting, many of these students can achieve academically and develop positive self-esteem and social skills. (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 1991). They also recommend that schools should ‘require in-service programs for all school personnel to give them the knowledge and skills necessary to provide education for students with learning disabilities in the regular education classroom.’ Schools should include activities to help participants learn strategies to meet individual needs of students, foster attitudes conductive to educating students with learning disabilities in the regular education classroom, and promote
What do we do with children with disabilities in the public school? Do we include them in the general education class with the “regular” learning population or do we separate them to learn in a special environment more suited to their needs? The problem is many people have argued what is most effective, full inclusion where students with all ranges of disabilities are included in regular education classes for the entire day, or partial inclusion where children spend part of their day in a regular education setting and the rest of the day in a special education or resource class for the opportunity to work in a smaller group setting on specific needs. The need for care for children with identified disabilities both physical and learning continues to grow and the controversy continues.
Public Law 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, now called Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), requires states to provide free, appropriate public education (FAPE) for every child regardless of disability. This federal law was the first to clearly define the rights of disabled children to receive special education services if their disability affects their educational performance. A parent of a special education student also has basic rights under IDEA including the right to have their child evaluated by the school district and to be included when the school district meets about the child or makes decisions about his or her education. If a child is identified as in need of special education services, the school district must devise a written individual education program (IEP) for the child, which includes related services. An IEP is a statement of a student’s special education and related services including speech services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, counseling and assistive technology and transportation. In addition, this legally binding, individualized plan outlines reasonable educational goals for the student and is reviewed and updated yearly.
The majority of students with disabilities should be in an inclusive setting. These students are generally placed based on the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). Furthermore, the majority of these students are able to keep up academically with their peers, even
Students with learning disabilities can learn; each student has his or her own strengths and weaknesses. Educators must continue to focus on the strengths of each student and building on them, creating a stronger student and person. Identifying the weakness is at the core of getting a student help with their learning disability, but after this initial identification and placement, the focus should shift to the strengths and adjusting the student’s schoolwork to reflect these strengths. For instance, if a student is weak in reading but has wonderful group interaction skills and is good with his or her hands, the students' reading tasks should then be shifted to reflect these st...
One obstacle that I believe many special needs students and families will face is understanding and dealing with the disability itself. Speaking from experience, this process can take time to understand and accept. This is where a special education teacher plays a significant role, assisting the student and family with information and support for understanding the student’s disability, facilitating education programs, and most importantly hope and progress for a bright future. Another obstacles that students with disabilities may face, is social interaction and acceptance. It is vital that all special education teachers and programs, try to incorporate strong social connections with their regular education peers and other community members and
High Incidence disabilities are mild disabilities that affect most of the special education students in schools today. “Approximately 36 percent of all students with disabilities served under IDEA have specific learning disabilities.” (Turnbull, Turnbull, Wehmeyer & Shogren, 2016 p. 104)The three areas that fall under the title of a high incidence disabilities are learning disabilities, mild intellectual disabilities, and emotional/ behavioral disorders. Students with high incidence disabilities are taught and spend most of their time in the general education classroom. They are supported in the classroom with accommodations, modifications, paraprofessionals and related services to help them succeed. They may spend a portion of their day receiving support from a special education teacher, or another related service providers such as a speech pathologist, physical therapist, occupational therapist, or social worker outside of the classroom. It becomes apparent when students start school which ones have a high incidence disability. This is because when they start school educators begin to notice they are different from their peers sometimes socially, behaviorally, or they begin to struggle academically. They all share some similar traits such as a short attention span and lower academic skills in certain areas or subjects. They may also have difficulties with their behavior or social development. At that point they may be referred to for testing or an evaluation to see what might be going on with the student.
During the late 1980’s and 1990’s the number of children with learning disabilities receiving special education services grew rapidly, but during 1998 and 2007 the number of children classified as having a LD has declined by 7% (Cortiella, 2009). “In 2007, 59% of students with LD spent 80% or more of their in-school time in general education classrooms. In 2000, that figure was just 40%” (Cortiella, 2009). In addition, students with disabilities are spending more time with students in traditional classroom settings. According to the Department of Education, “approximately 6 million children (roughly 10 percent of all school-aged children) receive special education services” (Pardini, 2011).
When teaching students with disabilities it is important to know and understand the needs of all the students in the classroom. Ultimately, the goal for any educator is to educate all of the students in the classroom and ensure that appropriate accommodations are being made for students with disabilities. By utilizing these skills in reading, writing, and classroom management, an educator will be able to help all students be successful.