The Bays of Pigs Invasion
The Bay of Pigs was one of the most important political decisions in the history of the United States. Its effects are still being felt to today, especially in the Cuban communities of the United States. The decisions that were made by the highest offices of our government showed us that the United States was, and is, far from perfect. They constructed a plan that wasn't completely thought through and paid a major price -- global embarrassment. They took the chance to destroy the communist threat that was quite close to our shores and, in the process, made the CIA and our government look incompetent.
First, I will give some background information on the conflict. In 1960, President Eisenhower gave the CIA the order to begin training Cuban exiles to oppose Castro's rule in Cuba and having them lead resistance groups within Cuba. Therefore, we would have a force already in the country to slow down Cuban Forces when our invaders landed. It didn't quite work out this way. When the American troops landed on April 19, 1961, they made it only a little way inland. At that point, they were met by a force much greater than they had planned on. We figured that the Cuban people were upset with Castro so they wouldn't want to give much of a fight. What happened was that the military fought with great pride for their country and pushed the American troops back to the landing site. There, the forces either surrendered or fled to safety. 1500 troops landed on the coast. Over 100 of them were killed and many more were captured. In many ninds, the invasion was a complete failure for the American military.
The main reason, and possibly the lone reason, for the Bay of Pigs invasion was to stop communism from reaching our country. This meant that the United States government wanted to provoke a counterrevolution in which democracy would be restored and all traces of communism would, subsequently, be destroyed. They tried this by sending the aforementioned group of Cubans into Cuba, an obviously unsuccessful tactic. They also decided to spend thousands of dollars on propaganda against Cuba. Articles, posters, and even comic books were written and distributed to spread cynicism towards Castro and his government. The other method used to spread propaganda was to drop over 1 million flyers over Cuba, hopefully convincing the people to rise up against Castro.
...ity of the blame went onto Kennedy's record as not being the one that had planned it out and not giving the go ahead for the second air raid. It was later proven that no matter what the outcome of the second air raid would have been, it would not have mattered. The CIA also released a document taking the full responsibility and blame for the incident at the Bay of Pigs. The Cuban Missile Crisis not only worried the U.S. but also worried the rest of the world as to how it would turn out. The Soviet's backed Cuba as an ally and fed them missiles and the supplies to build the missile silos in Cuba. The Soviet's said they did this as a counter measure incase we did in fact invade Cuba. Between these two major conflicts of the time, it can be said that the two countries were not battling over Cuba in itself, but more or less battling over the belief of Communism.
...urprise, they assumed many Cubans would defect from Castro, and help the U.S. fight. The undisputed fact is that the U.S. lost the battle at the Bay of Pigs. Nothing was gained, and nearly brought the U.S. into war with Cuba and its ally, Russia. After nearly 40 years, the Bay of Pigs remains the largest mistake made by United States officials.
Along with the above mention things, the U.S. disrupted trade with Europe and outright requested that Europe not trade with Cuba. Also during this period, the CIA began to plan assassination operations against Cuban Leaders, and have eight separate plots to assassination Castro (Perez 252).
Cuba was recovering from the Bay of Pigs invasion. They held off the American forces and were able to avoid the invasion. They weren’t sure if the United States would attack again. Cuba’s dictator (Castro) wanted to convert Cuba into communism. In doing this they allied themselves with the USSR while being dangerously close to the “enemy,” the USA. Cuba was now in the middle of the Cold War. Although they believed getting involved with the USSR would protect them, at the same time it put them in more danger. Castro did not think it would get Cuba tangled into the Cold War. In an interview he said, “Our problem is above all of national sovereignty. Cuba does not mean to get involved in the Cold War.”(Beck 551)
The time of the Cuban Naval Blockade the Unites States was at war with the Soviet Union, the war already preexisting for almost twenty years. The war already had United States and all its citizens at the edge of their seats. The rise of nuclear weapons was relevant and a high scare factor for everyone.
In an attempt to over throw the Cuban government the United States fully funded and planned the invasion of southern Cuba also know as the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The U.S. had landed armed Cuban exiles in southern Cuba in attempting to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro in 1961.this marked the climax of anti Cuban U.S. actions. The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion was caused by misinformation lack of strategic planning and mismanagement, the consequences of that was 2x4 to the face for the Americans and a major increase in tensions between the two super powers of the world during the cold war.
In April 1961, 1500 Cuban exiles made a landing at the Bay of Pigs (Encarta). The plan they had was to join with people who were against Castro to start a revolt. But things didn’t follow through because Kennedy didn’t send in the air support that was promised. Castro’s followers had killed most of the exiles and kept the others as prisoners. Castro wanted money for their release but Kennedy had refused to negotiate with him (Encarta). On December 25, 1962, 1113 prisoners were released in exchange for food and medical supplies that was worth a total of $53 million (J.A. Sierra). This never would have happened if Kennedy didn’t withdraw the aerial cover.
On April 17, 1961 one of the greatest foreign policy mistakes of the Cold War was made, the attempted invasion of the Bay of Pigs, Cuba. The failed invasion happened under the administration of John F. Kennedy and caused the deaths and imprisonment of over 1500 Cuban exiles fighting to over throw the rule of Fidel Castro. The aftermath caused much larger impacts towards United States foreign policy. The invasion made the United States look imperialistic to the rest of the world and allowed the Soviet Union to portray America as an aggressive and hostile country to its neighbors, which in turn allowed the Soviet Union to aid Cuba even more for future affairs. The Bay of Pigs also caused President Kennedy to distrust many of his advisers from the CIA for misinforming him. The CIA led him to believe the invasion would be over quickly and successfully after Kennedy had only been in office for three months. This distrust of his advisers certainly affected how Kennedy acted in future crises involving both Cuba and the USSR. This of course leads the question did the Kennedy Administration act appropriately for the Bay of Pigs invasion and how did the outcome affect United States foreign policy with Cuba and USSR?
The errors committed by the United States in terms of inaccurate planning and overconfidence within the Bay of Pigs Invasion rose the confidence of Cuban government in its own people and intelligence services and tactics for future attacks. The Bay of Pigs debacle not only strengthened Fidel Castro's hold on power, but also brought the Soviet Union firmly on to his side, thus increasing Castro’s initiative to implement Communism ideals in Cuba. This is evident in Castro’s strong relationship with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev between 1960 and 1962. The failure of the 1961 Invasion served as motivation for Fidel Castro to start planning a counter attack on the United States Government. Immediately as the Invasion had finished, Castro acted in order to further strengthen the nation in sight of possible future conflicts. To facilitate this, he consequently approved of Khrushchev's plan to place missiles on the island, something that immediately established a political alliance between the two Communist leaders which was convenient to both. Castro needed Soviet help to protect his regi...
In addition to wanting to aid Cuba in winning their independence, American higher ups saw it was an opportunity for expansion. Taking control of Cuba's port would expand trade and cause recognition of the United States as a rising world power. The U.S. also felt the need to intervene because the war between Cuba and Spain was costing American businesses money due to being disrupted.
The tropical island of Cuba had been an object of empire for the United States. Before the Missile Crisis, the relationship between Castro and the US were strained by the Bay of Pigs occurrence in 1961. This was where counterrevolutionary Cubans were American funded and tried to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. However, the counterrevolutionaries failed. Castro then found an alliance with the Soviet Union and an increase of distrust that Castro had on the US. On January 18, 1962, the United States’ Operation Mongoose was learned. The objective would be “to help the Cubans overthrow the Communist regime” so that the US could live in peace. Consequently, Castro informed the Soviet Union that they were worried about a direct invasion on Cuba, thus longed for protection against th...
The main reason for the Bay of Pigs attack on Cuba was the change to communism. The January 1, 1959 , the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista fled the country for the safety of the Dominican Republic ( Goode, Stephen 75). Fidel Castro and his guerrilla warriors overthrew the former government dictated by Batista. Over the next couple of weeks , Castro established a new government and on February 16 was officially declared premier ( Finkelstein , Norman H. 127). The United States accepted this new ...