Children of divorce are more likely to suffer from behavioral, social, academic, and psychological problems than children raised in two-parent families. The actual separation of the family will be the initial crisis that a child must deal with but many issues such as economic hardship, moving, and other major issues may follow. Sarah McLanahan, a leading divorce researcher at Princeton University, has identified moving as one of the most damaging effects of divorce for children. That is because the children lose invaluable ties to friends that may be able to help them cope with the new stress they are faced with. McLanahan and Gary Sandefur conclude that up to 40% of the increased risk of being a high school drop out is attributed to moving as a result of divorce (Chira 01E).
In this paper, we will be looking at the adolescence stage in the life course. Race/ethnicity, class and gender are related to resources and the well-being of adolescences because….. The social problem we will be looking at is depression and its correlation with shifts in family structure and the effects that both have on adolescences. One of the major shortcomings in analyzing parental absence (is that there have not been many studies that have presented data representing race/ethnicities separately (Amato 545).) Before we go another further into this paper, we are going to start by identifying what stage in the life course is considered as adolescence.
Due to this developmental predicaments and demands for more adult like behavior ,adolescents strive to behave according to adult values , goals and ideals (Mc Namara,2000). According to Mc Namara (2000) ,it is during this time that adolescence begin to develop negative or positive perceptions of themselves Due to the significance of self esteem, educators have a need to learn more about its development and how it affects academic achievement (Hamacheck, 1990). Poor self esteem during the developmental period of adolescence could result in a variety of risk such as juvenile delinquency , teenage pregnancy ,drug abuse , depression and low academic success (Hamacheck, 1990) 1.3 Problem Self –esteem can be crucial to students of all ages and can effect their outlook on daily life therefore the problem discussed in this research is Self esteem and how academic performance can effect it . Besides that , the secondary purpose so teachers and guardians can have a look on how they can learn and recognize ways in which they can foster self-esteem within their students . 1.3 Objective Even though there are positive findings that there is in fact a strong relationship between self esteem and academic performances there are those that do not take it seriously .
Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in youths aged 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1995). Despite this increased suicide rate, depression in this age group is greatly underdiagnosed and leads to serious difficulties in school, work and personal adjustment which may often continue into adulthood. However, how prevalent are mood disorders in children and when should an adolescent with changes in mood be considered clinically depressed? Brown (1996) has said the reason why depression is often over looked in children and adolescents is because "children are not always able to express how they feel." Sometimes the symptoms of mood disorders take on different forms in children than in adults.
The presence of depression disrupts the young person’s maturational development through the detrimental impact it has on social and educational functioning. For example, evidence indicates that major depression slows down some aspects of cognitive development and interferes with the acquisition of verbal skills; which can lead to dropping out of school, (Kovacs, 1989). Moreover, research indicates that in the long-term, depression that reoccurs leads to an increased risk for depressive disorder and dysfunction in adulthood, (Garber, Kriss, Koch, & Lindholm, 1988). Not only is adolescent depression the most significant predictor for adult depression; it also predicts increased risk among females of higher divorce rates and estrangement from parents, while among males there exists increased risk for higher rates of unemployment and car accidents. Both have increased risk for intimacy problems and legal activities (McFarlane, Atchison, Rafalowicz, & Papay, 1994).
Teenage mothers may feel like they are being demanded to do the job and they may take their frustration out on the child (When 2000). It is proven that traditional approaches to reducing teenage pregnancy rates such as sex education class or better sexual health services are not effective on their own. (DiCenso. 2004) This research has generated increased interest in the effects of interventions that target the social disadvantage associated with early pregnancy and parenthood. A social disadvantage refers to social and economic difficulties such as poverty, unemployment, and discrimination, and is distributed unequally on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics such as ethnicity, socio-economic position, educational level, and place of residence.
Children born to mothers living in poverty have a greater chance of being premature and to have difficulties at birth due to exposure to toxins in poor neighborhoods, smoking or drug use of the mother, and lack of prenatal care (Özkan, 2010). Children born into poverty are more likely to have high lead levels and the disabilities that come from high lead levels (Effect on Child, n.d.). They are also more likely to have respiratory illnesses, dental problems and sensory impairment (Özkan, 2010). Miller and Chen (2013),
“Basically, divorce tends to intensify the child’s dependence and it tends to accelerate the adolescent’s independence; it often elicits a more regressive response in the child and more aggressive response in the adolescent (Pickhardt, 2011)” Mr. Pickard acknowledges that children and adolescents respond differently to the ending of a marriage. The three main effects of divorce on adolescents are separation, differentiation, and opposition. Because half of all marriages are likely to end in divorce, parents with adolescents should think clearly before choosing to separate. In order to ensure that they are not placing added stress onto their kids during one of their most hectic stages of life. Fifty nine percent of marriages with couples who are younger than eighteen end in divorce within the first fifteen years of marriage, that percent drops to thirty six percent for those who are married at ... ... middle of paper ... .../ Dr. Phil.com - Advice - Marriage and Divorce: The Statistics.
And children who suffer from depression are more likely to develop other serious illnesses during adulthood. Children with depression may be terrified of leaving a parents side, or may begin worrying about the death of a parent. Children may also get into trouble and feel like no one understands them. These are sometimes seen as part of being a child and going bthrough changes, which is an inaccurate generalization. By the time teens turn fifteen years old, girls are twice as likely as boys to have suffered from a depressive disorder.
Ongoing research suggests that sexual intercourse during the adolescent years may have a negative effect on the brain’s development. According to Julie Baumgardner, “research indicates that multiple partners can damage an individual’s ability to develop healthy... relationships” (Baumgardner). Similarly, multiple sex partners may also lead to a drop in grades at school (Preidt). Julie Baumgardner also expresses her concerns of a possible correlation between teenage sex and depression (Baumgardner). Mrs. Baumgardner further explains that teenagers who have had sex are almost three times more at risk to develop depression than teenage... ... middle of paper ... ... along with future underlying relationship problems or emotional baggage (Baumgardner).