The True Meaning of Terrorism Think of the word terrorism. What is the first thing that comes to mind? One might think of kidnapping, assassination, bombing, or even genocide and guerrilla warfare. Because it is such a broad and complex issue, an all-encompassing definition is hard to formulate. The United States Department of Defence defines terrorism as… The calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological.
This act shows terrorists that democratic governments will act decisively to prevent their evil crimes. The bombings were necessary to send a message that terrorist attacks would not be tolerated and to try to prevent further violence. Conversely, some argue that the U.S. is committing international terrorism themselves. The United States regularly uses violence for political motives, to intimidate and terrify, which is the exact definition of terrorism. The bombings in Afghanistan and Sudan were called anti-terrorist raids, but they were actually acts of terrorism by the U.S. themselves.
1. There are many definitions of terrorism. Some of them are: Brain Jenkins said that terrorism is the use or threatened use of force designed to bring about political change. While Walter Lacqueur said that terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve apolitical objective by targeting innocent people. Yet another definition comes from Edward Herman, who said that terrorism should be defined by terms of state repression, such as the corrupt Latin American governments.
Surely, when different societies experience vast violence, the difference between the two can be quite mixed up (Payne, (2013) pg92). Deliberately, taking a gander at the components that make terrorism helpful to oversee unique object is significant to any coherent exertion to dispose of terrorist dangers. Terrorism happens to have numerous interrelated reasons. Some assume that destitution may be the base of terrorism. Neediness is nearly connected to financial and political confinement, sentiments of misery, violations of human rights, and the absence of majority rules system, which all gives a prolific rearing ground to terrorism.
In today’s world, terrorism is not an un-known word; terrorism can be tracked back to early recorded history. Nevertheless terrorism definition is universally hard to define (Brown, 2008). Every individual’s definition of terrorism is different some describe it as a strategy and tactic. Another will describe it as sacred obligation, some will say it’s a justified stand against domination. Obviously, it depends on whose point of view is being represented (Brown, 2008).
Domestic terrorism is the use of violence or intimidation in one’s own country against one’s own people. According to the FBI, in order to classify an event as domestic terrorism, it must meet three criteria. “It must involve dangerous acts to human life that violate federal or state law, and it must intend to intimidate civilians, influence the policy of a government by intimidation, or affect the government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping. In addition, it must occur within the territorial jurisdiction of the Unites States” (“Definitions of terrorism”, n.d.). Domestic terrorism is important to understand especially if it is in your own country.
Terrorism is an international problem, which includes more than terrorist acts. It includes sabotage, destruction of property, efforts to injure, efforts to kill, propaganda that attempts to justify violence, intimidation, and threats. However, terrorism is defined as "the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives," by the FBI (The Terrorism Research Center). Most terrorism is blind in that its acts are not meant distinctively for civilians, servicemen, or politicians. Thus terrorism can be deleterious to all people, regardless of religion, creed, age, gender, or social status.
Categorical terrorism, according to Jeff Goodwin, is defined as “the strategic use of violence and threats of violence, usually intended to influence several audiences, by oppositional political groups against civilian or noncombatants who belong to a specific entity, religious or national group, social class or some other collectivity, without regard to their individual identities or roles.” More so, in terms of definition, according to a study done by Jeffrey Record in 2003, there was a count of over 109 definitions of terrorism, covering 22 different categorical elements. During the 70s and 80s, the United Nations struggled to define the term, finally coming up with the following definition: “Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them.” Clearly, the UN definition being more general as any act of terror, it is found that revolutionary groups adopt the use of categorical terrorism because it is commonly cheaper than selective terrorism. Further, Goodwin argues that categorical terrorism is employed for the purpose of attacking and threatening what he calls “complicitous civilians.” Complicitous civilians are defined as (1) civilians who often benefit from state actions that the revolutionaries oppose, (2) those that support the state, (3) or civilians who have the ability to influence the state. The primary directive of categorical terrorism is to provoke complicitous civilians from further supporting the state. By applying intense... ... middle of paper ... ...ilians, the reward was clear.
State-sponsored Terrorist groups used by small states and the Communist bloc to attack western interests. State Power of the government used to terrorize its people into submission. With the definitions described one can now put a terrorist organization into a specific group. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an analytical terrorist group, even though they can be part of each. The PLO was created in 1964 during a meeting known as the Palestinian Congress.
So how do we define a term as broad as terrorism? Before you can destroy your enemy, you must understand your enemy. Keeping this in mind, we’ll look at the many different classifications that terrorism can be separated into, before moving into tactics and mentality. The different types of terrorism are as varied as the individual terrorist’s motives and desires. The difference between international and domestic terrorism is probably the most noticeable split.