Throughout history artists have used art as a means to reflect the on goings of the society surrounding them. Many times, novels serve as primary sources in the future for students to reflect on past history. Students can successfully use novels as a source of understanding past events. Different sentiments and points of views within novels serve as the information one may use to reflect on these events. Natsume Soseki’s novel Kokoro successfully encapsulates much of what has been discussed in class, parallels with the events in Japan at the time the novel takes place, and serves as a social commentary to describe these events in Japan at the time of the Mejeii Restoration and beyond. Therefore, Kokoro successfully serves as a primary source students may use to enable them to understand institutions like conflicting views Whites by the Japanese, the role of women, and the population’s analysis of the Emperor.
Joseph Conlans “State of War; The Violent Order of Fourteenth Century Japan” is an depth look at Japans emerging warrior class during a time period of constant warfare in Medieval Japan. His work however doesn’t revolve around the re-fabrication and in-depth analysis of battles sieged like many contemporary examinations of wars and battles won and lost. Instead the author vies to navigate the reader on journey into the warrior class’s lives and how they evolved through a statistical analysis of records. This illustrates how warfare changed and transformed with the constant evolving of the Samurai, but it also includes how their actions affected their Political environment as well as the society in which they dwelled from the bottom up. Through his survey of records and documents, Conlan is able to give readers a compelling look into the Warrior class and at times shatters in the process many of the pre-conceived general notions that one may hold about this ancient class of professional warriors. Many of the notions & common misconceptions debunked in this scholarly piece include the idea that the Samurai was a male only fraternity, reserved for those of impeccable candor and loyalty. When truth be known, woman and young men (boys) were also trained in the art of war and thus were as likely to be found on the battle fields as men when times were tough and solider numbers were depleted. Further, another misconception (Generally thought to be caused by the popular and well known; “The Bushido Code: The Eight Virtues of the Samurai”) of the warrior class is that all of these men were truly Samurai which translated to “one who serves” when really, loyalty for the warrior class as Conlan points out only went as far as ones right to ...
Nagata, Donna, K. "Expanding the Internment Narrative: Multiple Layers of Japanese American Women's Experience." Women's Untold Stories: Breaking Silence, Talking Back, Voicing Complexity. Ed. Mary Romero and Abigail J. Stewart. New York: Routledge, 1999. 71- 82.
Comfort Women were women forced into prostitution corps, created by Japan during the WWII. Till today, the brutality of this wrong-doing remains unacknowledged by the Japanese authorities. “Comfort Women” was a more pleasant translation of prostitutes. Due to the lack of adm...
...direct assistance of a male. In Japan’s Comfort Women, the “weakness” of women is seen again. Rape and sexual trade became a power play by individual men all the way up to the highest levels of government. But it was also a story of strength and courage on the part of victimized women. The Pacific War changed many things in Japan and the evolution of those institutions of Japanese society happened rapidly. The changes, however drastic, however gruesome, however sorrowful, were what shaped the history and future of Japan.
Traditionalist ideals such as women “following three men” – father, husband, and son – throughout their lives, or the sentiment of incompetence regarding women strongly prevailed in Japanese society until as recently as 1945. Furthermore, at the core of the beliefs of traditionalist Confucianism, which still remains today, is the idea of the family unit being the backbone of the nation. Both men and women place a strong value on this and see it as a foundational tenet on which the future of Japan depends on. The family “is seen as the product of the wife’s investment of her adult life in her husband and children”. While from the western eye, the role of the female in this ideology may seem inherently patriarchal. However, in Japan this is viewed as a big and almost respected role to fulfill – namely the role of managing and producing a household for the nation. Nonetheless, it cannot be denied that such notions do further reinforce the traditional hegemonic, gender ideals. While change is possible, the relatively late legal reforms in gender equality, and the fear in resisting the “system” of women producing stable households, lies at the heart of Japan’s social lag in gender egalitarianism, providing an added complexity to the issue that was not seen in the scenario of the
This author suggested that there is a disparity of records pertaining to the writing of economic history of women in regards to other records written during this time (1868-1945). She describes how the comparative study of Japanese women to other industrialized nations during this time period is difficult; due to the relatively short time period in which Japan transformed from a Chinese influenced, isolationist country to a super power. This also reflects...
... During the Total War, men were sent to war and women were needed therefore women were free and as free citizen must help their nation. As soon as the war was over they were no longer needed and sent back home and continue their unpaid domestic work. As one of the propaganda image showed in class illustrated women who didn’t help during wartime can be prosecuted for murder. How are women free if they can’t make their choice of rather or not to be involved in a war? Where is the freedom of choice? Wood’s book illustrates how women are utilized as both babas and comrade or Mary and Eve with this notion of women emancipation. The government really believes women are primitive and unintellectual since they are playing with their desire and making them their little puppet. In time of war, used them for work and in time of peace used them as babas and subordinate to men.
Ikegami, Eiko. The taming of the samurai: honorific individualism and the making of modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995. Print.
The novel “When the Emperor was Divine” is about a Japanese family who was sent to the internment camp based on propagandized information. Otsuka portrayed what happened to those who were Japanese during WWII and how it affected many Japanese-Americans. In “When the Emperor was Divine” the characters , the woman,the boy, and the girl used to all have a positive character. The woman was a strong mom who dealt things on her own. The girl and the boy were Japanese-American and does things normal Americans do. However, during WWII, many factors have changed based on stereotypes.The characters once saw themselves as strong Americans but stereotypes of the Japanese as they were in the internment camp caused the characters to become weaker,saw themselves as the enemies ,and was disconcerted that the fact that the characters were Japanese.
In Yoshie's work, “Gender in Early Classical Japan: Marriage, Leadership, and Political Status in Village and Palace (2005),” she takes the example of Toji, women known to have played a m...
Masatsusu, Mitsuyuki. 1982. The Modern Samurai Society: Duty and Dependence in Contemporary Japan. New York: AMACOM.
By 1938 Japan had invaded much of China and had taken over Nanking killing more than 42,000 civilians. The Chinese government never surrendered completely, and the war continued on a lower scale until 1945. During World War II, the Japanese military forced women from various different countries to work as comfort women to the Japanese soldiers. Trafficking in women is a form of sexual slavery in which women are transported across national borders and sold for prostitution, sex tourism, or migrant workers. Women were kidnapped or brought over under false pretenses thinking that they were being given jobs. The comfort women of the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II are an extreme case of this institutionalized sexual violence against women. Through research and testimonies from comfort women survivors during World War II and former Japanese veterans, I attempt to show the ways that this has affected the intersection of colonial power, gender and class. I argue that the development of gender contributes to the construction of Japanese colonialism and the system of comfort women helped Japan as an imperial state gain power. The ideas of masculinity and femininity is what helped the maintenance of the Japanese military system and comfort stations made an impact in which Japan expanded its colonies by military means.
Matsumoto studies three generations, Issei, Nisei, and Sansei living in a closely linked ethnic community. She focuses her studies in the Japanese immigration experiences during the time when many Americans were scared with the influx of immigrants from Asia. The book shows a vivid picture of how Cortex Japanese endured violence, discriminations during Anti-Asian legislation and prejudice in 1920s, the Great Depression of 1930s, and the internment of 1940s. It also shows an examination of the adjustment period after the end of World War II and their return to the home place.
Uzawa, K. (n.d.). Political and social situation. In The Ainu of Japan: Political situation and rights issues. Retrieved from http://www.npolar.no////.html