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Sudan's Struggle for Unification and Peace

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Sudan’s Struggle for Unification and Peace

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 states, “The conflict in the Sudan is the longest running conflict in Africa… it has caused tragic loss of life, destroyed the infrastructure of the country, eroded its economic resources and caused suffering to the people of the Sudan” (“Sudan” Insight). Sudan faced the challenge of overcoming the ethnic division between Northern Sudan’s Arab heritage and Southern Sudan’s African heritage. Southern Sudan was isolated from the Northern region, which prevented Sudan from fully participating in the country's political, economic, and social life. This separation resulted in ethnic tension and caused racial clashes and dependence between the two groups. The turmoil and troubles in Sudan today began with a heavy Anglo- Egyptian influence on ancient-Sudan.

As early as 8000 BC, the Egyptian pharaohs sought to push their control South, past the Nile, in order to use it as a dual method of transportation and trade. During the most expansive time in Egypt, slave markets and trade routes were the two most valued items in Egyptian society. Some of the first records of trade were with the Arabian people in the Red Sea ports for spices and slaves. In order to ensure trade, the Arabs created a treaty with Nubia which stated that both areas agreed to annually exchange slaves for grain as a token of appreciation. As a result of the treaty, the Arabs developed a friendship with the Nubians, Arab merchants established towns to exchange grain and slaves, and the mining industry flourished through the use of slaves to mine emeralds and gold. The constant trading of goods resulted in the desire for kingdoms to be powerful and conquer their enemies. When the Middle K...

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