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Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra

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Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra
Name the two royal families that ruled Ancient Sparta.
Agiads and Eurypontids.

What is meant be the term Ephor?
Ephor: (Greek ephoran,”to oversee”),
The ‘Ephor’s’ were a part of the Ancient Spartan constitution. The Ephor’s were an order of five high magistrates elected by the people to represent the will of the people; they were replaced on an annual basis by vote to prevent one person becoming to power hungry or powerful.

Describe the roles of helots and Perioikoi in Ancient Sparta.
Despite common belief, Sparta was not simply a horde of strong, vicious and primitive warriors living on the Laconian plain, on the right bank of the Eurotas River. Though this was the general impression there was much more to the civilization then just the agoge training system and soldiers. Helots and Perioikoi were two o f the most vital aspects of the Spartan empire upon which agriculture and the economy relied.

Helots were the original residents of the Laconian plain, the term Helots often means ‘prisoner of war’ and that is a good representation of what the Helots were, prisoners or slaves. Owned as property of the state they were assigned land that was owned by individual Spartans, they worked, lived on and made profit from the agricultural products derived from the land though a half of any harvest was directly given to the landowner. The helots produced all the food for the population of Sparta and worked incessantly to maintain the spartiate’s lifestyles, Tyrtaeus compared the helots to ‘Asses exhausted under great loads: Under painful necessity to bring their masters full half the fruit their ploughed land produced’. The tasks of the helots were generally agricultural though, when the Spartans w...

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...litary end even the women in Sparta would have been affected by the military ways of life almost as much as the young men. From childhood they were being primed to raise a family, they were taught in the ways of mid wifery, learning the correct manner in teaching the future young men of Sparta and keeping themselves fit to produce fit children.

Spartan women unlike the Athenian females were encouraged to exercise and become as fit as possible, Lykourgos had expressed his belief in a correlation between the fitness of parents and the fitness of the child. Xenophon dictates these beliefs;
“In the first place, therefore, he prescribed physical training for the female sex no less than for the males; next, just as for men, he arranged competitions of racing and strength for women also, thinking that if both parents were strong their children would be more robust”
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