The rebellions were supported by the Greek cities of Athens and Eretria, who were dissatisfied with the Persian tyrants. In 498 BS troops supported by the Greek city-states marched on Sardis and burnt it down. Unfortunately, this good start was the only offensive actions by the Ionians. On their return journey home from Sardis, they were attacked by the Persian troops and defeated at the Battle of Ephesus. During the Persians three pronged counter attack aimed at recapturing the areas around the center of the rebellion.
In 490 B.C, the Athenians defeated Persian invades at the Battle of Marathon. In 480 B.C. Xerxes the First, the Emperor of the Persians, (c.519- 465) B.C, and a large Persian force attempted to even the score. In the battle of Thermopylae, The Persian’s outnumbered the Spartans. The Persians then marched to Athens for revenge.
The Persians were great conquerors who crushed rebel cities with ease. King Darius sent a large force to punish Athens with its interference. The Persian army landed at Marathon where Athenian forces attacked. Though they were outnumbered 2 to 1 they emerged victorious. Athens had convinced Sparta and other city-states to join them in their battles.
The human need for conflict is a constant factor in everyday life and has been demonstrated throughout our readings of the Romans and the Greeks. As seen in Herodotus’ The History, tales of battles and wars are described in epic proportions and are a constant theme throughout his writings. Herodotus plays into the aspect of fighting, as well as the cultural belief of Greece that war was a necessary part of society and should be valued by the citizens. By heightening the actions of soldiers in battle, war is encouraged as a way of life because it is emphasized as a way of being remembered and praised for committing honorable deeds and protecting Greece. Herodotus incorporates numerous acts of valor like those seen in The Battle of Thermopylae in his writings in order to provide the ultimate connection between Greek behavior and warfare as a representation of what it meant to practice good citizenship.
In 490 BCE, during the Archaic period, in the mainland, Marathon, the Athenians impelled off the Persian army. Many years later, the Persians attempted again, invading Greece and even abolishing beautiful Athens full of many remarkable pieces. Fortunately the Athenians were skilled sailors with a small yet impressive navy. They then destroyed the Persian fleet at Salamis in 479 BCE. From that Athens emerged from destroyed to destroyers.
Athens and Eretria had sent a small fleet in support of the revolt, which the king of Persia took as an excuse for launching a full assault on the Greek mainland. In 492 BCE, his forces advanced toward Europe, but when much of his fleet was destroyed in a storm, he returned home. However, in 490 a Persian army of 25,000 men landed on an area called the Plain of Marathon, and the Athenians requested Sparta to join forces against the invader. Although the Persian empire was at the peak of its strength, the collective defense mounted by the Greeks overcame the Persian
He was chosen to lead because of the unsurpassed warring abilities the Spartans were so well known for made him perfect for the objective of stopping the Persians. Xerxes and his army landed on the Greek shores of Thermopylae sometime in the summer of 480 BC. The Persian army numbered somewhere around 100,000 to 150,000 soldiers from across the Persian Empire, most of which were slaves forced to join after they had been conquered (Robinson). Their plan was to march into the heart of Greece through the Thermopylae pass, the only path through the mountains. It was here that King Leonidas thought he had the best chance to stop the Persian advance into Greece.
The Greeks lost their first battle against the Persians. The Persians second attempt for an invasion was located at Marathon in Greece in 490 BC. The Persian generals Datis and Artaphernes had 48,000 men and a few sh... ... middle of paper ... ...ve victory in the war, the Athenians could rightly be said to have saved all Greece from Persian domination.” (Jona 4). The Greeks stopped the Persians from conquering the rest of Persia. The city of Athens is in ruins, but sooner or later the Greeks will rebuild it to be a more fabulous city.
Themistocles' strengthening of the Athenian navy and unification of Greek states in the Panhellenic League along with his strategies in the battles of Thermopylae, Artemisium the pivotal Greek naval triumph at Salamis, all contributed to the ultimate defeat of the Persians in 480 - 479BC. During these battles, Themistocles lured the Persian force into narrow, close range battlegrounds suited to the Greek style of hand to hand, close range combat. Themistocles was born to an Athenian aristocrat father and a non-Greek mother in the Lycamidace family without any support from the ruling class. By 493 BC, age of 35, he had secured the supreme post of the nine archons as Archon Eponymous. According to Bradley, it was as an archon that Themistocles began the fortification and improvement of the new Piraeus whose three natural harbours would be more efficient than the open bay at Phalerum.
During the Greco-Persian Wars, the Spartans and Athens fought together against the powerful Persians. One of the reasons for the temporary alliance was the impressive navy of the Athens. Historian Thomas R. Martin asserted, “The peace struck in 446/445 formally ended the fighting, supposedly for thirty years. New disagreements that arose in the 430s over how each of the two states should treat the allies of the other led to the collapse of the peace, however.” This navy helped the Spartan Army and the Spartan Army helped the Athenian Army. However, after fighting together to defeat the Persians, the two rival city-states went back to their old ways of despising one another.