Social Norms

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Deviance is a title that insinuates the violation of social norms in society. This can be described as adjacent to criminal and improper behaviour imposed by the people who break the social norms of a society. Thus, becoming subjective to a label of 'deviant'. Deviants often have punishment bestowed upon them by authoritive figures such as the enforcers of law. There are many universal types of deviance throughout societys over the world such as alcoholism, addiction, mental illness and homosexuality. All of these may be a result of biological and social constructionist theories of deviance, this essay will define the opposing differences and the relation of the two in this essay. Both hold contributing factors to the construction of deviance in society, but are both highly conflicting theories. The codification of deviance can vary widely between different cultures, a norm in one culture can be considered deviant in another. For example, the notion of cannibalism has been proved by anthropologists to be a spiritually divine form of ritualistic sacrifice in the ancient Aztec culture of Mexico. Yet in Western culture murder and the consumption of human flesh is considered highly revolting, dealt with by harsher consequences by law than most other deviant crimes. These differences are due to the way each individual society develops their own moral codes. These codes are often defined by cultural ideologies, adversity to other cultures and ritualistic practises which have become accepted, as well established patterns in the development of culture. Lloyd, M 2007 implies this by saying 'we are born into a pre existing (social) order the comes ready made with a large stock of norms and rules we must learn if we are to participate... ... middle of paper ... ...creasing medicalization, professionalism and globalization gives the monopoly to the dominant class in the defining of normality. This can be defined as the professional diagnosis of criminals, deviants, sufferers of anxiety which has become in a ‘treatable’and so on. This essay has described the major conflicting theories used to structure the ideologies surrounding deviance. The dominating conflict of them all is the basic structure of each theory, wheter biologically or socially constructed. Explain the two.... A major difference between the two theories are that biological theories of deviance were not supported by any scientific evidence. When the general cenus realised that everyone with long arms were not nessecarily deviant, this lead to biological explanations of deviance being discredited by scientists and realistic social constructionist theories.

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