The schedule of reinforcement has many variables, as well as many ways behavior is reinforced. In order to completely create reinforcement schedule the person must understand the behavior that they wish to change. In my case, the behavior that I wish to change is eating habits. In this paper, I will explore the different schedules of reinforcement and how each would work towards changing my behavior, as well as cause weight loss. My eating habits are very easy to explain, I eat when I am hungry which is not very often. This causes my body to store whatever nutrients I do take in, as well as any fat. This way of eating, in addition to medications I have and am taking make it extremely hard to lose any weight. The first reinforcement schedule to explore is continuous interval reinforcement. The way this is done is by strengthening the behavior by rewards each time it occurs (Feldman, 2011). As Skinner hypothesized the rapid depletion of rewards, in Skinner’s case food pellets, can and should be taken for granted (Morgan, 2010). In my case, a continuous reinforcement of eating healthily would not be ideal because the reinforcement desired is weight loss. With continuously losing weight comes many health problems, especially if the drop is brisk. Another problem with continuously strengthening that behavior is the rewards themselves begin to mean little. The next reinforcement schedule the Skinner developed is the partial reinforcement schedule, meaning behavior is strengthened with a reward only part of the time (Feldman, 2011). The partial schedule of reinforcement is further divided into four different categories, the fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval. The fixed ratio schedule is where after... ... middle of paper ... ...fore I have taken the steps outlined in this essay and made a change in my behavior by joining Weight Watchers. The final plus to weight loss is being able to fit into a wedding dress. At the current time, I am unable to fit into the dress I want, as they do not make a size big enough to fit all of me. By following the fixed ratio and variable interval schedules of reinforcement I will be able to lose the weight in order to stay healthy and fit into my dress. Works Cited Feldman, R. (2011). Operant Conditioning. In Essentials of Understanding Psychology (9th, pp. 179-182). New York, New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Freedman, D. H. (2011). How to fix the obesity crisis. (Cover story). Scientific American, 304(2), 40-47. Morgan, D. L. (2010). SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT AT 50: A RETROSPECTIVE APPRECIATION. Psychological Record, 60(1), 151-172.
Hence, in his experiment, Skinner placed rats in the Skinner box and observed its’ behaviors. Initially, these rats would be randomly moving around exploring, and would usually press the bar accidently. At this point, a food pellet would drop into the tray. He observed that if a hungry rat receives a pellet of food when it presses a lever after, maybe 2 minutes have elapsed since the last pellet, then its response rate increases with the passage of time. In other words, after the first incident of the food pellet dropping into the tray, the rate of the rats pressing the bar rises dramatically and remains high until the rats hunger were satisfied. Thus, this study showed a clear association made between the behavior and the consequence of that behavior. In this case, the consequence of a behavior encouraged the repetition of that behavior also known as positive reinforcement.
Skinner argues that ‘learning is accelerated by reinforcement: a stimulus that increases the probability of a response’ called ‘operant conditioning’ and it is not reliant on what triggered the response but...
Shaping involves reinforcing a target behavior by using operant conditioning to reward a positive behavior and prevent a negative behavior. This method was created by B.F Skinner, in which he reinforced a target behavior in the experimenting of rats to see if they will be able to push a lever. He used the principle of rewarding by giving the rats a piece of food each time they got closer to the lever. Shaping, also called "successive approximation," allows the subject of the experiment to set goals for itself when it has reached that successful approximation. Rewarding has its benefits because it is a sensitive procedure towards an act that helps shape a behavior. Shaping can also be used on humans, in laying emphasis on a positive behavior.
Behavior modification is based on the principles of operant conditioning, which were developed by American behaviorist B.F. Skinner. In his research, he put a rat in a cage later known as the Skinner Box, in which the rat could receive a food pellet by pressing on a bar. The food reward acted as a reinforcement by strengthening the rat's bar-pressing behavior. Skinner studied how the rat's behavior changed in response to differing patterns of reinforcement. By studying the way the rats operated on their environment, Skinner formulated the concept of operant conditioning, through which behavior could be shaped by reinforcement or lack of it. Skinner considered his discovery applicable to a wide range of both human and animal behaviors(“Behavior,” 2001).
The target behavior I chose earlier in the semester was my desire to reach my weight loss goal. With my family history of high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol it is easy for me to fall into the same footsteps. Carrying around too much weight feels uncomfortable, and it can also be really damaging to my health. However I have realized the dangers of being obese and have set my mind to getting healthier so I can live longer for my sons. I recently joined a weight loss boot camp, and one of our assignments was to purchase and read “Why We Get Fat and What To Do About It”, by Gary Taubes, which brings me to my book review for the final assignment.
The behavior I want to modify is how much I exercise. I currently do little to no exercise; at most I will exercise once a month. I wish to increase how much I exercise. My end goal for this behavior modification is to exercise three times per week (at least one hour each session). I will use the behavior and consequence (reward) principles of operant conditioning in my modification plan. To achieve my end goal I have small goals to achieve each week. Each week that I complete my behavior I will be given a reward. The first few weeks are fairly simple and so the rewards are small. As I complete more weeks the behavior gets harder so the rewards become more substantial. This means that the closer I get to completing my end goal the more I will get rewarded. By rewarding myself as I get closer to my end goal I am incorporating the process of shaping into my behavior modification. I have broken down my
B. F. Skinner concluded that people could mentally have control over all of their responses. He believed that a reinforcement and/or consequence given after a behavior would influence future behavior (Roblyer,2003, p.57). In other words, reinforcements and/or punishments can shape human behavior. For example, if a child eats all of his vegetables at dinner and his parent’s reward him with positive words and a cookie, then the child will probably eat his vegetables at the next dinner.
Also, we can use the schedules reinforcement into the teaching. It is an agreement or set of rules that a teacher will follow when delivering reinforcers. Behaviorists found that different schedules of reinforcement had different influences on the speed of learning and on extinction. These schedules include Continuous Reinforcement and Intermittent Reinforcement. However, it is more effective to use the Intermittent Reinforcement
...e completely healthy attempting to avoid my punishment and then there were days where I ultimately caved and failed at eating well. On those days, I followed the rules I set in place and worked out as I said I would that evening. Part of the time my boyfriend would inevitably cause me to falter by cooking a nice fattening meal, but I don’t blame him at all considering it was up to me to make the decision to refrain from eating it. I probably didn’t do as well as I could have around lunch time or dinner but I’m glad at the fact that I did keep away from sweets and snacks throughout the entire week. I was really intrigued with getting good results for this project so I tried my hardest to actually follow the program set. Even if I don’t keep with this change after the project it’s very comforting to know I CAN eat healthy when I want and I CAN workout if I need too.
My measurable, specific and realistic goal for this quarter is to exercise at least 10 hours a week by weightlifting, running, and swimming for the next 10 weeks. To be able to do that, I would need to have positive reinforcement to keep me going, help give me that little push that I need every day. One positive reinforcement that I absolutely love to use is food. After a hard day of working out, I buy myself something nice to eat, like good pizza or burritos. This way I become more likely to work out knowing that I will get something doo to eat after. I like to believe that food is my number 1 enforcer. It will always be there when I need it, it satisfies me tremendously, and overall it is just ridiculously reinforcing. As a result I try to
In order to create a behavior modification plan that will be successful for the individual, identifying cues, responses and consequences of eating behaviors is necessary. Control of eating behavior, physical activity, emotional, social, and psychological health must all be analyzed and interventions applied. Behaviors related to problems with intake and expenditure of energy must be specifically defined. Recording and analyzing eating and exercise behaviors to develop strategies aimed at learning new behaviors are essential.
While replacing food rich in fat and carbohydrates with protein, John must also increase his physical activities. In other words, he must shift from a sedentary lifestyle to an active one. However, this does not require him to make the drastic change. In fact, one study emphasizes that an abrupt shift to an active lifestyle may come as a shock for those trying to lose weight, which can discourage them from sustaining an active lifestyle in the long run because they might find the change tiring or one that requires too much effort (Simpson, Shaw and McNamara 46). Thus, the change must be gradual. The body as well as the mind must be allowed to adjust. For example, John may start by including longer walking time in his daily routine. From a mere twenty minutes of walking per day, he may increase it to twenty-five or thirty minutes, depending on his preference and endurance. He may also try to take short walks during breaks from office work. The whole point of increasing John’s physical activities is for him to burn more calories than in previous days. This is because regular calorie intake coupled with a sedentary lifestyle can increase body fat and, therefore, weight (Simpson, Shaw and McNamara
B.F. Skinner is a major contributor to the Behavioral Theory of personality, a theory that states that our learning is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, modeling, and observation. An individual acts in a certain way, a.k.a. gives a response, and then something happens after the response. In order for an action to be repeated in the future, what happens after the response either encourages the response by offering a reward that brings pleasure or allows an escape from a negative situation. The former is known as positive reinforcement, the latter known as negative reinforcement (Sincero, 2012). A teenager who received money for getting an “A” is being positively reinforced, while an individual who skips a class presentation is being negatively reinforced by escaping from the intense fear and anxiety that would have occurred during the presentation.