Rival Middle Ages

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ban revival AD 1000/1215 The early middle ages are generally recognized as a period of decline and stagnation, in the years following the fall of the Roman Empire in ad474, the west is generally viewed by historians as underdeveloped, in comparison to the Byzantine Empire, and the Islamic world. However between 1,000 and 1215 ad, Western Europe began a series of profound changes . The period of tribal migration, war, and colonisation diminishes; this period gives way to a more settled system of emerging nation states. Now it becomes possible for the bourgeoning states to raise taxation such as the Norman Poll tax from the developing money economy, as well as technical advances in farming, and social changes, when taken in conjunction with population expansion this leads to Western Europe evolving, a merchant base, manufacturing, and agricultural production to equal, and even surpass in terms of trade, the Eastern Empire of Constantinople and the Islamic caliphates. The expanding population founds new towns and cities. The new cities such as Venice, in Italy and Lubeck in Germany would have a significant impact on the future development of pan European trade. The first and perhaps most important aspect of change in the period of AD 1000 to ad 1215, was climate change, the weather had begun to improve from the 8th century, the more temperate weather, warmer and drier, than in the previous three centuries had a direct effect on the predominantly agrarian societies of Medieval Europe. The temperate climate extended the growing season , and this corresponded with increased agricultural yields . The expansion in agricultural production was also a result of new farming techniques, the most significant of which was the three field system ... ... middle of paper ... ...f Medieval Europe. (Oxford university press, Oxford 2003). Bishop, Morris, the Middle Ages. (American Heritage, New York, 2001). Cantor, Norman F, the Civilization of the Middle Ages. (Harper Perennial, New York, 1993) Duby, Georges, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West. (1968). Gimpel, Jean, the Medieval Machine. (Victor Gollancz, London, 1997). Herrin, Judith, Byzantium. (Penguin Books, London, 2008). Postan, M M, the Medieval Economy and Society. (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1972). Pounds, N J G, an Economic History of Medieval Europe. (Longman, Harlow, Essex, 1994). Rosenwein, Barbara H, A Short History of the Middle Ages Volume 1. (Broadview Press, Peterborough, Ontario, 2004). Slocum, Kay, Medieval Civilization. (Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont, California, 2005). Spufford, Peter, Money and its use in Medieval Europe. (Cambridge University Press,

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