Rest of Natural Gas

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Historically, there are three main means of extracting natural gas: vertical drilling, horizontal or directional drilling, and hydraulic fracturing, each playing a role in both oil and natural gas development throughout history. Vertical drilling is typically used to access reserves that are in more porous reservoir rock. Vertical drilling is the extraction technique used to retrieve natural gas from a highly permeable formation that will allow the gas to flow toward the end of the wellbore. This method only extracts gas from the portion of the well that intersects with the reservoir rock. Vertical drilling is a traditional method for easily accessible natural gas reserves. Horizontal drilling and fracturing have also been used to extract conventional oil reserves, however with advances in technology this technique has been fine tuned to extract unconventional sources that are trapped in shale formations (Ratner and Tiemann, 2014). Horizontal drilling allows for gas extraction from less permeable rock formations. Horizontal drilling allows the wellbore to follow a formation for a significant distance and a much larger portion than a vertical well could. Horizontal wells also allow for as many as 9 or more wells to be drilled from a single well pad. Although, horizontal wells are more cost intensive and time consuming generally there is an increased amount of production and more natural gas can be extracted. Hydraulic Fracturing is not a new extraction method; technology has simply developed to allow fracking to become a viable option when extracting unconventional oil and gas. The process by which fracking releases gas trapped in its shale formation is multi step and requires precision and timing. Ultimately, th... ... middle of paper ... ...ronmental Science & Technology, 45, 8182–8189. Wickham, J., Wood, P. B., Nicholson, M. C., Jenkins, W., Druckenbrod, D., Suter, G. W., . . . & Amos, J. (2013). The overlooked terrestrial impacts of mountaintop mining. BioScience, 63(5), 335-348. doi:10.1525/bio.2013.63.5.7 Witter, R. Z., McKenzie, L., Stinson, K. E., Scott, K., Newman, L. S. & Adgate, J. (2013). The use of health impact assessment for a community undergoing natural gas development. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1002-1010. World Coal Association. (2005). The coal resource a comprehensive overview of coal. Retrieved from Xin, M., Gustin, M. S. & Pflughoeft-Hasset, D. F. (2006). Air-substrate mercury exchange associated with landfill disposal of coal combustion products. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56(8), 1167-1176.
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