During the 19th century the East Africa was marked by the sadness event of slave trading in response to larger demanding markets. For a long time the exportation of slaves was made through the Red Sea and Indian Ocean to supply the Muslin world. However there was a greatly expansion of slave trades to the Atlantic ocean during 19th century. The slave trading increase during the 19th century due to the fact that the exportation of slaves was a profitable business, more than five times the export of ivory and other goods(1). During the 18th century ivory dominated the trade of the colonies in northern Mozambique, but the demand for slaves in the begging of the 19th century changed this scenario of hunting for elephants in East Africa.
Coastal traders would utilize the wealth they had accumulated from the trade of palm oil to purchase slaves to operate the large canoes that transported the palm oil and other products from inland markets to coastal trading ports. Although many considered slavery in the Niger Delta region to be brutal work, many of the slaves were well paid, and some wer... ... middle of paper ... ...nger tolerated mixing Islam with indigenous African customs. The Sokoto Caliphate created a special tax to be paid by any non-Muslims. Jihads against so called pagans led to the death, enslavement, or forced conversion of many non-Muslims, so for the first time, many Africans in rural areas practiced Islam as opposed to indigenous religions. Although Islam in Western Africa faced some internal reforms, it remained prominent and continuous in the face of European imperialism.
The Atlantic System began with the need of available labor sources for large plantations. The transport of slaves through the Middle Passage soon advanced into wider proportions, and the Triangular Trade was established. While Europe and America gained economic, and industrial advantages from the slave route, it is Africa that suffered the most impact culturally, economically, and emotionally. Works Cited - Jerry H. Bentley. Traditions Encounters & A Brief Global History.
The Slave Trade and Its Effects on Early America Slavery played an important role in the development of the American colonies. It was introduced to the colonies in 1619, and spanned until the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. The trading of slaves in America in the seventeenth century was a large industry. Slaves were captured from their homes in Africa, shipped to America under extremely poor conditions, and then sold to the highest bidder, put to work, and forced to live with the new conditions of America. There was no mercy for the slaves and their families as they were captured from their homes and forced onto slave ships.
From the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century from across the Atlantic came the largest forced migration in the world's history. This became known as the Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade truly began when the Portuguese interests in Africa moved away from their cherished and beloved deposits of gold and moved towards something they found much more readily available than minerals, slaves. Europeans saw Africans as a source of inexpensive labor for their American colonies. European planters established large farms and plantations in the America's to grow tobacco, sugar and many other cash crops.
The slave trade which had already begun on the West Coast of Africa provided the needed labour, and a period from 1496 (Columbus's second voyage) to 1838 saw Africans flogged and tortured in an effort to assimilate them into the plantation economy. Slave labour supplied the most coveted and important items in Atlantic and European commerce: the sugar, coffee, cotton and cacao of the Caribbean; the tobacco, rice and indigo of North America; the gold and sugar of Portuguese and Spanish South America. These commodities comprised about a third of the value of European commerce, a figure inflated by regulations that obliged colonial products to be brought to the metropolis prior to their re-export to other destinations. Atlantic navigation and European settlement of the New World made the Americas Europe's most convenient and practical source of tropical and sub-tropical produce. The rate of growth of Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century had outstripped all other branches of European commerce and created fabulous fortunes.
The Netherlands operated in 7 provinces, known as the United Provinces, and the Dutch society was mainly consisted of bourgeoisie, sailors, and merchants. Because of the major trade industry in Holland, and that agricultural was secondary to the trading industry, the Dutch people were taxed extremely high for goods. However, a wave of culture flowed through Dutch Society, influenced by the economic profit that the Dutch gained from trade. The production of sugarcane and cotton in the New World increased the urgency for laborers in the new colonies, in which led to the major importation of African slaves. These plantations and farms, in the New World sparked the golden business of slave trading, a business that will guide the Dutch to economic wealth.
The cotton was growing bountiful and the planters needed slaves to harvest it, thus the need for slaves pushed the slave trade and increased the amount of slaves in the South tremendously during the first half of the 1800’s. Just as slavery was starting to lessen, the South discovered a way to lasso it back into it’s grasp thanks to the discovery of the cotton gin, allowing it to quickly recuperate from the death of tobacco. The growth of slavery in the first half of the 1800’s was also aided by the expansion of land, and the cruel yet profitable slave trade, all prolonging the misery of the black Southern population.
Slavery in Africa, Europe, and Jamaica Traders, businessmen, African slavers and slaves each had a unique experience and involvement in the business of the transatlantic slave trade. This lucrative process, that lasted between 1500 to 1870 AD included three different hemispheres: Europe, Africa, and the Americas, specifically Jamaica. In Africa slavery existed long before European exposure, however, over time the motivation for slavery changed. Originally slavery existed because of the expanding of African territories or the need to pay off debts. Europeans, during their attempts to make a shorter trade route to India and Asia, encountered the African custom and adopted it.
The reason behind this was slavery, and it lasted between middle of the sixteenth century until 1980, making it the largest movement across the Atlantic before the 19th century (Lovejoy, 2002, pg. 141). The origin of the name ‘Middle Passage’ came about the crossing from Africa to America, and it acquired the name since it was the central point of the trade routes taken by many of the ships. This passage took imprisoned Africans from their motherland. The economies of the colonies in America such as the Carribean and Latin America were making development progress.