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Reading And Reading Comprehension

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Literature Review
In today’s schools, so many children have problems with learning to read. Learning to read is an important life skill and comprehending text is the reason that we read. With this in mind, understanding the nature of the reading process is the starting point of developing strategic readers. Reading is the process of decoding a set of written symbols in order to make meaning. A reader begins by looking at printed symbols associated with oral language and pictures which is then translated into a sound. Afterwards, the reader has the ability to decode and pronounce the spoken symbols or words to begin the next important step of translating written words into meaningful language (Hogan, Bridges, Justice & Cain, 2011; Ulagammai, Fathima & Mohan, 2013).
Reading comprehension is the product of decoding printed text which is the purpose of reading and learning to read. According to Jitendra and Gajria (2011), reading comprehension is the result of the process of constructing meaning of written text through interaction between words and knowledge outside of text. In other words, readers make connections between what they know and what they are reading about. Furthermore, children comprehend text when they are able to read and decode words accurately and fluently (Hogan, Bridges, Justice & Cain, 2011). Hogan, Bridges, Justice & Cain (2011) also discuss the strong correlation between word reading and listening comprehension. They explain how word reading and listening comprehension are dependent on each other to activate reading comprehension and range as children grow as readers and develop language. Research supports that reading comprehension is indeed affected by decoding words and language skills (Cain, Bryan...

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...ch as decoding and vocabulary (Hogan, Bridges, Justice & Cain, 2011; Watson, Gable, Gear & Hughes, 2012).
For some students, reading comprehension does not develop normally. Many factors play a part with having difficulties mastering each reading skill to understand text. Children who struggle with reading face the challenges of working at a slower rate, relying on interventions and adjusted instruction to meet individual needs, and experiencing great frustration (Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 2008; Strickland, Boon & Spencer, 2013; Watson, Gable, Gear & Hughes, 2012). Once the basic reading and language skills are acquired and learned and problems with reading comprehension are identified, students can begin to make meaning of text. Researchers believe that using specific reading comprehension strategies help students understand text and become strategic readers.
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