According to Tierney, R.J. (1990), “Comprehension is a creative, multifaceted thinking process in which students engage with the text” (p. 253). Comprehension is the most important goal of reading. This is the main reason people read, because they want to know the meaning of a story, a meaning of a sentence, or the text that they are reading. Teachers may use multiple strategies for students to comprehend when students are reading. For instance, teachers may activate background knowledge, connect readers with text, determine importance, etc (Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A.
Basic Concept of Reading Dadzie (2008 cited in Owusu & Acheaw, 2014) states reading is the ability to understand words that help students’ knowledge growth and develop. In addition, Weaver (2009) states that reading is a process to determine students’ brain, emotion and belief bring to get knowledge or information. From both of statements, it can be assumed that reading is an activity to understand text that determines students’ ability, intelligence to get or gain information of what they read. Likewise, following Cline, Johansen & King (2006) reading is decoding and understanding written texts. Decoding means how the students translate the text in order to understand the information from text.
Reading is a complex task which incorporates several elements for teachers to effectively teach students to read. Reading is the process of constructing meaning from text and using the student’s prior knowledge and experience to make sense of the context. A balanced approach to reading is the most effective way to teach students to read as it gives student’s the correct learning opportunities to become engaged and passionate readers. A balanced approach to reading involves the effective use of both phonics and whole language. The elements of the two are combined into a program aimed at educating students to be proficient and lifelong readers.
If words are beyond a student’s skills, students tend to guess the words and they may think reading is too difficult for them to learn, resulting in a lack of confidence in themselves, believing reading is beyond them. Reading and speaking is a process, which takes time and patience. Students should be encouraged to go at a pace, which is not too fast and within their comfort zone. Early learners should be introduced to new ideas gradually and their skills and knowledge built up step by step. The reading skills of a student determine other skills in English.
Fluency helps in reading because the reader should be able to tell what a word is and know what it means. If a student rereads a story they can practice fluency and become better at it. A teacher can also be the guidance and model when developing a fluent reader. If the teacher does the demonstrating, a student could follow along and eventually learn to become fluent. Fluency can be developed in reading once a student has caught on to phonics, phonemic awareness, oral language, vocabulary, and comprehension.
It is my job to motivate them to learn how to read, so they will then want to read independently when they start to gather those skills. One of my students may be able to quickly learn how to read written text, while on the other hand one of
This is useful, and helpful when teaching kids. It allows for repetition and practice of reading and writing. However, in some cases especially students who are below average in their reading skills some strategies need to be provided and mastered before comprehension can occur. Students need to have prior background knowledge about phonics, and word usage. The whole idea is to build both top-down model strategies, and bottom-up skills and word identification at the same time.
A comprehensive approach to literacy instruction has two components, reading and written expressive language. As students learn about reading, they reinforce ideas about written expressive language; furthermore, when students learn about written expressive language, they are reinforcing ideas about reading. Another factor to a comprehensive approach to literacy is reading. Reading is the process that involves the translation of symbols on a printed page into words and understands the word meaning. The translation of symbols is called decoding.
Word recognition involves includes that of blending, applying sight words and Syntactic cues and sit under the umbrella of phonological awareness and reading fluency. Reading comprehension is the process of understanding what is been read and sits under the umbrella of reading vocabulary and reading for enjoyment (pg 10). These components will allow students to recognize words quickly and effortless and with enjoyment. Of all the skills children learn in school, reading is the most important but unfortunately children are sometimes faced with barriers that if not dealt with properly will prevent them from overcoming reading difficulties. Jennings, Caldwell and Lerner (2009) stated that Reading difficulties can be a problem of emotional, neurological, cognitive, and can even be associated with intelligence and intellectual factors.
Developing Children’s Oral Language Oral Language: The ability to communicate in spoken form. The more fluent and automatic language is for a young person the more likely they are to advance in reading skills. It refers to hearing, understanding and the ability to use language both expressively and receptively. Expressive Language: The ability of a person to communicate, orally, in writing, gestures, art, through pictures or video. The person speaking must “encode” their thoughts into a symbolic form so as to be received and understood by a listener.