According to Tierney, R.J. (1990), “Comprehension is a creative, multifaceted thinking process in which students engage with the text” (p. 253). Comprehension is the most important goal of reading. This is the main reason people read, because they want to know the meaning of a story, a meaning of a sentence, or the text that they are reading. Teachers may use multiple strategies for students to comprehend when students are reading. For instance, teachers may activate background knowledge, connect readers with text, determine importance, etc (Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A.
Critical Literacy and Content Literacy Connections Critical literacy is the ability to read and write in a way that results in a deeper understanding. Critical literacy is an approach that teaches students “to exercise their critical faculties to filter what they understand and are asked to believe from texts” (Temple, Ogle, Crawford, & Freppon). Content area literacy “emphasize two ideas: 1) the significance of reading to learn and 2) the importance of teaching students to become more proficient and efficient readers of content area texts.” (Swafford & Kallus). In essence, critical literacy serves as the foundation for content literacy. The ultimate goal of critical literacy and content literacy is enabling students to be able to analyze and evaluate text.
Alphabetics are addressed in the word lists provided. Teachers can provide students with a letter-name inventory, a letter-sound inventory, a phonics-inventory which will strengthen their developmental spelling inventory along with strengthen students word decoding (Walpole & McKenna, 2006). Being able to obtain information about students vocabulary, is crucial to establish a vocabulary developmental program. Some IRIs available provides vocabulary knowledge assessments that can gauge the level of vocabulary comprehension. Generally vocabulary and comprehension scores are comparable.
This approach is used for children and adults in schools settings or classes for students learning English for specific purposes. The Cognitive Academic Language Approach (CALLA) is an approach that integrates academic language development, content area instruction, and “explicit instruction on learning strategies that can help students remember both the content and language”. (Chamot & O’Malley, 1996,p.263). This model promotes thinking in the language class because students need to be critical thinkers, and active in their learning. CALLA is designed for limited Engl... ... middle of paper ... ...oach is used in all the content areas, and students work in cooperative, and language heterogeneous groups to promote language development, and content learning.
Teachers need to provide students with endless amounts of practice experiences in reading to build their fluency rate. This should be done with different genres of texts and different levels. Reading a wide variety of literature help children develop rich vocabularies. Phonemic Awareness is very important part of literacy. Phonemic awareness includes sounds of a word, the breakdown of words into sounds.
From predicting strategies, students can improve their understanding of the text, such as through predicting the title of the text, pictures, and keywords. Moreover, in predicting strategy, students’ need prior knowledge to connect with the text they are reading. It is supported by Que (2011) that explain students use their prior knowledge to interact with text, make meaning and generate predictions of what they read. Indeed, students should have prior knowledge in order to use predict strategy. Visualizing The nature of visualization in reading is the process of creating picture of text to help comprehension (Munro, 2008).
The exemplary teachers encourage students to ask questions and discuss their ideas with classmates; they also pose open-ended, higher-level thinking questions. Another characteristics of effective literacy teachers is giving students the choice of tasks which integrate various skills: reading, writing, speaking, listening and thinking. Finally, teachers grade students’ work based not only on achievement but first and foremost based on effort, improvement and through the use of rubrics. If you walked into my classroom during the guided reading block, you would notice Arlington’s six features of effective elementary literacy instruction exhibited in various types of activities. Students would be divided into five groups according to their reading level, similar reading processes, needs and interests.
Practical educators understand that they key in this phase of reading, comes from teaching students to recognize that individual letters and certain letters together create specific repeated sounds. Successful teachers must aide students in having a well-founded understanding of phonemes in order to form letter-sound correspondences and recognize spelling patterns. When teachers assist students in doing so, it leads to helping the students learn how to apply this knowledge in their reading. As mentioned above, a starting point in phonics instruction comes from assessing the prior knowledge of the student. This allows teachers to create lessons and plans that offer diversity and give students a fair chance to understand
Reading is a complex task which incorporates several elements for teachers to effectively teach students to read. Reading is the process of constructing meaning from text and using the student’s prior knowledge and experience to make sense of the context. A balanced approach to reading is the most effective way to teach students to read as it gives student’s the correct learning opportunities to become engaged and passionate readers. A balanced approach to reading involves the effective use of both phonics and whole language. The elements of the two are combined into a program aimed at educating students to be proficient and lifelong readers.
My Philosophy of Education My philosophy of education and my personal goals and theories about how students are empowered through their educational experience revolve around the student-centered, interactive approach to instruction and learning. My goal as an educator is to create a learner-focused environment that promotes the basic literacy skills - reading, writing, listening, speaking and thinking. Children are readers, writers, and thinkers who need language to question and understand. They become members of literate communities using language in real ways for real purposes. Through my own classroom research, I have learned to listen to children, to observe the multitude of ways in which they learn, and to examine the elements that encourage their growth.