Basic Concept of Reading Dadzie (2008 cited in Owusu & Acheaw, 2014) states reading is the ability to understand words that help students’ knowledge growth and develop. In addition, Weaver (2009) states that reading is a process to determine students’ brain, emotion and belief bring to get knowledge or information. From both of statements, it can be assumed that reading is an activity to understand text that determines students’ ability, intelligence to get or gain information of what they read. Likewise, following Cline, Johansen & King (2006) reading is decoding and understanding written texts. Decoding means how the students translate the text in order to understand the information from text.
One way to pass on specific reading skills is through guided reading groups. This learning activity gives students the opportunity to develop their comprehension, reading fluency, and word recognition, while also providing an effective method of differentiating the curriculum to suit various student reading abilities (Bayetto, 2013). Guided reading programs are not only useful for improving students’ reading abilities, but will also provide useful data for teachers when planning class programs. It needs to be emphasised that running effective guided reading groups is a complex process which requires strong teacher scaffolding and prior knowledge and consideration of students’ abilities (Department for Education and Child Development (DECD),
Content based or enriched English as a Second Language instruction is an approach that provides second language learners with instruction in content and language. In this approach, students are exposed to a considerable amount of English through motivating content. Students are taught useful language that is embedded within relevant context rather than as isolated language. This approach tries to prepare students to acquire the language while using the context of any subject matter, so students learn the language by using it within specific context rather than learning the language in isolation. This approach is used for children and adults in schools settings or classes for students learning English for specific purposes.
The ultimate goal of critical literacy and content literacy is enabling students to be able to analyze and evaluate text. These skills allow students to look for biases in text and evaluate what the author’s purpose is in order to determine their own thoughts on the topic. Understanding critical literacy and content literacy makes it possible to see the theoretical connections between the two. One connection that exist between critical literacy and content area literacy is that learning is an active process and it requires the learner to be engaged and involved with the learning process and material. Another connection is the idea that students can use background knowledge and combine it with what they are learning to gain new knowledge and understanding.
The QAR strategy was developed by Taffy Raphael as a means to clarify how students should approach the task of reading the text and answering questions based on it. The strategy displays a three-way relationship between the text, questions, and the reader. The QAR method divides comprehension questions into the two categories: “In the Book”, and “In My Head.” It then breaks each category down into two subcategories. These categories help the student recognize the need to consider both the information in the text and information from their own previous knowledge in order to answer the question. QAR instruction provides a balance for the students so they should not run into the problem of over relying on either their background knowledge or the text information.
K-W-L charts can be used to develop discourse and shared understandings since they record what is know... ... middle of paper ... ...students will also be able to evaluate information in order to determine what is important as well as develop students’ knowledge of textual structures and their general textual intelligence (Huffman). 1. Santa Fe Public Schools retrieve from firstname.lastname@example.org. 2. Huffman, Kevin, Commissioner, Department of Education, Reading in the Content Area, retrieved from http://tn.gov/education/ci/english/reading.shtml.
To tackle this issue, reading interventions should be prepared for students with LD as for them to have equal learning opportunities. These interventions should be designed to deal with two aspect of reading skills: Oral decoding and Reading comprehension. In Watson, Fore & Boon, the authors take in consideration the early problems of early decoding for reading fluency. When teaching beginning readers, oral deco... ... middle of paper ... ...t with LD. Both studies imply observing the students decoding ability with the help of special education teachers.
According to Tierney, R.J. (1990), “Comprehension is a creative, multifaceted thinking process in which students engage with the text” (p. 253). Comprehension is the most important goal of reading. This is the main reason people read, because they want to know the meaning of a story, a meaning of a sentence, or the text that they are reading. Teachers may use multiple strategies for students to comprehend when students are reading. For instance, teachers may activate background knowledge, connect readers with text, determine importance, etc (Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A.
Practical educators understand that they key in this phase of reading, comes from teaching students to recognize that individual letters and certain letters together create specific repeated sounds. Successful teachers must aide students in having a well-founded understanding of phonemes in order to form letter-sound correspondences and recognize spelling patterns. When teachers assist students in doing so, it leads to helping the students learn how to apply this knowledge in their reading. As mentioned above, a starting point in phonics instruction comes from assessing the prior knowledge of the student. This allows teachers to create lessons and plans that offer diversity and give students a fair chance to understand
By using TT as a learning resource, teacher hopes the student can notice the target language input given, negotiate the meaning, and practice the language by responding the teacher’s instructions. Through this way, students are expected to be facilitated and have a big chance to be active in teaching and learning process so that they can improve their knowledge about l... ... middle of paper ... ...ions of using code switching in FL teaching of eleventh grade students of SMA N 1 Ponorogo in the Academic Year of 2013/2014. 4. The Significances of Research The result of the study is expected to the beneficial for: 1. Students This study is expected to give students an awareness of increasing their language acquisition by using code switching.