Gender, Race and Class in Media. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications. Pollack, William. (1995) "Deconstructing Dis-identification: Rethinking psychoanalytic Concepts of male development." Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy.
In this essay, I will explore the reasons for division and ambiguity in the scientific community regarding the definitions and explanations of race and intelligence, and assess whether it is prudent to assess their effect on each other at present. I will first address the issue that intelligence quotient (IQ) test scores do not indicate a fundamental intellectual ability, due to the dissonance between races and their understanding of intelligence. In order to impartially gauge the intelligence of an individual, it is scientifically valid to consider their specific context, as the diversity of cultural values strongly affects the importance put on certain abilities, which in turn affects how intelligence must be measured (Bouchard, 1998). Empirical evidence suggests intelligence is a combination of socially mediated mechanisms and genetics (Berg, et al., 2005). Environmental factors, such as education and social support, as well as genetic contributions, appear to be equally responsible for group differences in intelligence (Deary, Spinath, & Bates, 2006).
However, Cashmore goes on to argue that the terminology of race has been used to reflect changes in the understanding of physical and cultural differences (1988:235). Cornell and Hartman argue the characteristics that constitute a definition for the concept of race are complex. The authors claim that race can be categorised in social and physical terms. Race is a “human group defined by itself or others as distinct by virtue of perceived common physical... ... middle of paper ... ...The most profound conclusion on the concept of race is the argument that the term is not a biologically innate fixture.
Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science. New York: Picador USA, 1998. Stufflebeam, D. L. "Conflicts between Standards-Based and Postmodernist Evaluations: Toward Rapprochement." Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education 12, no. 3 (September 1998): 287-296.
Itiel Dror, wrote an article called, “How Can Francis Bacon Help Forensic Science? The Four Idols of Human Biases”. He explained what Bacon meant when using the term idols, and how they affect the scientific world positively and negatively. “Francis Bacon developed the doctrine of "idols," in which he laid out his understanding of the various obstacles that get in the way of truth and science - false idols that prevent us from making accurate observations and achieving understanding. These idols distort the truth, and thus stand in the way of science.” (Dror).
(1997). Evidence for Racial Prejudice at the Implicit Level and Its Relationship With Questionnaire Measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(2), 262-274. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.112
Therefore, I cover the history of philosophy with blanket criticisms of the blanket categories of "classical" and of "modern" thought. For Dewey, the fundamental error characteristic of both Greek and Modern thinking is the artificial bifurcation of our thoughts, feelings and actions from the natural world. As I see it, the heart of this metaphysical mistake is captured by the distinctions he draws between the "instrumental" and "consummatory," and between the "precarious" and "stable." In Experience and Nature, John Dewey launches an attack against many forms of philosophic thought. (1) He recognizes that philosophy can lead into a dialectical maze of problems that have no answers and ways of thinking that alienate our values from the "objective" world.
It is evident that the scientific community has yet to agree upon a universally viable explanation of the interactions between race and intelligence. A psychosocial phenomenon known as ‘race’ has the power to bind a group of people together and determine how they are expected to behave (Kendig, 2011). Our behaviour is determined by another phenomenon known as ‘intelligence’ (Colom, Karama, Jung, & Haier, 2010). Since these are both such ... ... middle of paper ... ...and Brain Sciences, 3, 353-354. Sternberg, R. J., Grigorenko, E. L., & Kidd, K. K. (2005).
Hare (1996) theorized that psychopathy may be related to cerebral dysfunction “reflecting structural or functional abnormalities in the brain mechanisms and circuitry…responsible for the coordination of cognitive and affective processes (Intrator et al., 1995).” Damage to the medial temporal cortex, amygdala, and particularly of the orbito/ventromedial frontal cortex, has been correlated with “dissociation... ... middle of paper ... ...dle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Geis, F.L., Brown, V., Jennings, J., & Corrado-Taylor, D. (1996). Sex vs. status in sex-associated stereotypes. Sex Roles, 11, 771-785. Hare, R.D. (1996).
Racial movement forced African American people to undergo involuntary sterilization, without their knowledge or consent. White Americans were afraid of an "infertility crisis" occurring, and in 1903 President Roosevelt cautioned that immig... ... middle of paper ... ...tive American human skulls. He did not have any advanced analytical tools, but yet was still able to create a scientific and anatomical backing behind the supposed lowliness of the Native Americans – the low quality (due to the smaller size) of their brains. Morton collected and measured hundreds of human skulls to authenticate this difference amongst races. His methodical comprehensive tests made him an innovator of American race science.