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Molecular Biology: DNA Replication, Transcription And Translation

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1. Molecular Biology
The working of every cell depends on the accuracy of DNA Replication, Transcription and Translation. The three processes occur sequentially to facilitate the flow of genetic information and control the traits of an organism.
First, DNA Replication takes place. The double helix DNA splits into two strands, and each separated strand acts as a new strand of DNA with its own complete genome. Second, DNA is transcribed to mRNA during a process called Transcription. The mRNA carries the information needed for protein synthesis. Lastly, Translation occurs where mRNA directs protein synthesis with the assistance of the tRNA. (ATDBio, n.d.)

Figure 1: Replication, Transcription and Translation (Childs, 2001)
The study of replication, transcription and translation of genetic material is known as molecular biology. Molecular biology is a bottom-up approach to understanding human life. Though the exploration of molecular biology began in the 1930s, it really took off in the 1960s after the uncovering of the structure of DNA. (Coriell Institute for Medical Research, n.d.) Today, molecular biology is shaping our understanding of diseases. Through this reflection journal, I seek to explore preventative and curative phenomena in medical biotechnology, and determine their impact on the political, social and economic spheres.
2. Prevention and Cure
Three relatively recent medical advances are the vaccination for cervical cancer, genetic testing and preimplanation genetic diagnosis. These advances prevent diseases, diagnose diseases at an early stage, prescribe treatments through an understanding of genetic material and provide cures for diseases that were previously not treatable.
2.1. Cervical Cancer Vaccine
With a high mor...

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Genetics & IVF Institute (n.d.). What is PGD? Retrieved from http://www.givf.com/geneticservices/whatispgd.shtml
Genetics Home Reference (2014, May 20). What are the types of genetic tests? - Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/uses
National Cancer Institute (n.d.). HPV and Cancer - National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/HPV
National University Hospital (2003, November). Genetic Testing- Why When and Whom. Retrieved from http://www.nuh.com.sg/wbn/slot/u3609/Education/Healthcare%20Professionals/Education%20&%20Training%20Opportunities/Bulletin/bulletin_33.pdf
World Health Organization (2013, September). WHO | Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs380/en/
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