The American President Dwight D. Eisenhower, came up with the Domino-Theory which says: "If one country becomes communist, the other countries will fall one by one." They thought Asia would become communist too if the USA did not bring its army into action. But the South-Vietnam didn't have the power to fight a major guerrilla war against the North-Vietnam, but with the assistance of US advisers, the US rebuild the South Vietnamese army. In 1930-31, the Vietnamese National party was totally wiped out, so the lead in the resistance was taken over by Ho Chi-Minh and his founded Communist party. In 1950 Ho Chi-Minh declared, that only his Government was legal.
This was also the year in which the USSR exploded its own atom bomb, which meant the USA was no longer the only nuclear power. The French asked the USA for help but were refused it, as they first disapproved of the French. After China became communist the USA put $500 million a year into the French war effort and helped them set up a non-Communist government in South Vietnam. In 1954 the French were defeated at the decisive battle of Den Bien Phu. At the Geneva conference in April 1954, the foreign ministers of Britain, France, the USA and the Soviet Union decided to meet and try to bring peace in Vietnam.
This group was engaged in the training of South Vietnamese troops in the use of U.S. weapons. In the spring of 1954 the Vietminh won a big battle against the French at Ðien Biên Phu. Even with the help of America, France was unsuccessful, and they gave up the fight. Vietnam was partioned at the 17th parallel between North and South Vietnam. The north became a communist republic, while the south became a republic under the right wing dictator, Ngo Dinh Diem.
When the conflict began the U.S. sent in mostly ground troops and officers, it was a limited amount. "According to the terms of the Geneva Accords, Vietnam would hold national elections in 1956 to reunify the country"-Brigham, 1. The French and the British were both ready for the treaty to be signed and the conflict finally ended -Hess, 47. The Eisenhower administration used SEATO only as a way of stalling. They had basically, through the work on SEATO, created a whole new country out of the remains of the old Vietnam -Br... ... middle of paper ... ...sed his popularity in office -Hess, 117.
~ Other advisors however doubted that such an action could reverse the disastrous course of the war and warned the president that it could lead inevitably to deeper involvement in an Asian land war the United States couldn't win. (The Debate over Vietnam Page, 30) By 1960 the American troops were sent in to fight a war that cost; Fifty-eight thousand Americans lost their lives. The losses to the Vietnamese people were appalling. The financial cost to the United States comes to something over $150 billion dollars. Direct American involvement began in 1955 with the arrival of the first advisors.
The Vietnam War, also known as the American War, and the Second Indochina War started on December 1956. 58,000 Americans were killed. The war ended on the 30th April 1975, along with a withdrawal of the United States army, and the South and the North of Vietnam reunited. The US government, led by Lyndon Baines Johnson, tried to stop communism from spreading in North Vietnam, because if Vietnam became a communist country, the nearby countries, such as Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia may be affected and become communist countries as well, like a domino, gradually turning down the countries in agreeing in being a communist, called the ’domino theory’. On the other hand, South Vietnam was a capitalist.
Used as justification, the Domino Theory was irrational, because North Vietnam only intended to reunite the country under Communism. Full-scale fighting by the US began in 1964 based on the Anti-Communist hysteria that existed at the time. Disillusioned after two years, the majority of Americans participated in the anti-war movement. Protesting first began in 1964 by college students, a group affected by the draft. President Kennedy reinstated the draft, but included Selective Service, a law prioritizing who would be drafted first.
Due to this, America decided that the only way tha... ... middle of paper ... ...inning this war. American taxes had just been raised due to the huge strain on the economy of the war, and morale was already quite low. So the NLF launched the "Tet Offensive", where in January 1968 they captured 75% of the main towns in South Vietnam. This was the first time during the War that they had been involved in full on fighting with the U.S. But yet again, the surprise element had worked in the NLF's favour and they quickly managed to capture town after town.
France occupied all of Vietnam by 1884. Independence was declared after World War II, but the French continued to rule until 1954 when communist forces under Ho Chi Minh, who took control over the north, defeated them. Eisenhower’s advisers believed that Ho Chi Minh’s powerful communist-nationalist appeal might set off a geographical chain reaction. As Ho Chi Minh’s government established itself in North Vietnam, Eisenhower supported a noncommunist government in South Vietnam and ordered covert operations and economic programs to prevent Ho Chi Minh from being elected the leader of a unified Vietnam. The Vietnam War was a military struggle fought in Vietnam from 1959 to 1975.
As the Guerrilla attacks started they had a big effect on the North Vietnamese but they tried to blame it on the South even though it was the newly formed Vietcong who were an anti-communist government. The USA increased its involvement after a while when things started to get worse. Even with more support from the US, Ngo Dinh Diem’s government made more mistakes. They tried to separate all of the villagers from the Vietcong by creating ‘Strategic hamlets’ or fortified villages that the Vietcong could not get in to. A lot of the people from the villages did not want to leave the lands hey had farmed for a long time or leave the graves of their family... ... middle of paper ... ... providing intelligence support for South Vietnamese attacks at Hon me and Hon Ngu, Johnsons secretary of defence, Robert McNamara, went before Congress and denied that the United States Navy was supporting South Vietnamese military operations.