In May of 1954, the landmark Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case had declared the racial segregation of American public schools unconstitutional. The Supreme Court had called for the integration of schools, so that students of any race could attend any school without the concern of the “white-only” labels. The public school system of Little Rock, Arkansas agreed to comply with this new desegregated system, and by a year had a plan to integrate the students within all the public schools of Little Rock. By 1957, nine students had been selected by the Nation Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), chosen according to their outstanding grades and excellent attendance, and had been enrolled in the now-integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. But, the Little Rock Nine, consisting of Jefferson Thomas, Thelma Mothershed, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Elizabeth Eckford, Minnijean Brown, Ernest Green, Melba Pattillo Beals, Gloria Ray Karlmark, and Terrence Roberts, faced the angered, white segregationist students and adults upon their enrollment at Central High School.
The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments on five cases that challenged elementary- and secondary-school segregation, and in May 1954 issued its landmark ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that stated that racially segregated education was unconstitutional. White Southerners received the Brown decision first with shock and, in some instances, with expressions of goodwill. By 1955, however, white opposition in the South had grown into massive resistance, a strategy to persuade all whites to resist compliance with the desegregation orders. It was believed that if enough people refused to cooperate with the federal court order, it could not be enforced. Tactics included firing school employees who showed willingness to seek integration, closing public schools rather than desegregating, and boycotting all public education that was integrated.
Her willingness to be arrested rather than give in one more time led to the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott” (Beals, 1995, p. 20). Then in February 8, 1956, the NAACP demanded that the schools integrate immediately. The Little Rock governor, Orval Faubus, refused to support integration of the Arkansas schools. As all this unfolded, white citizens became increasingly incandescent and even violent towards blacks (Beals, 1995). In 1955 a group of over 100 students voluntarily signed their name on a paper stating they would like to attend an all-white-school.
The Integration of Central High School Little Rock, Arkansas The desegregation of public facilities began with the decision of Brown vs Board of Education in 1954, where the Supreme Court of the United States deemed segregation unlawful and unconstitutional. The country was told that desegregation was to take place "with all deliberate speed". This angered the white community. Violent retaliation was the means used to prevent the integration of blacks into various public facilities. In fact, the Autherine Lucy case demonstrated to the entire country that violent mobs could halt integration demanded by a federal court order.
Brown vs. The Board of Education of Topeka 1954 Oliver Brown and 12 other plaintiffs (names undisclosed) brought suit against the Board of Education with the help of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). During this time in history segregation existed in some facets of our educational system. In the state of Kansas, to be more precise Topeka, segregation was dominant among elementary schools. A group consisting of Oliver Brown and 12 other parents (20 children involved) wanted equal educational rights and do away with segregation among the school system.
Oliver Brown, an African American father, attempted to register his daughter Linda in an all-white public school in Topeka, Kansas; expectedly, he and his daughter were turned away. Brown immediately took the matter to court with the assistance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Rejected by the district court, the case was taken up to the Supreme Court. The attack on segregation was based upon the clauses of the Fifth Amendment including the Due Process Clause. The case also considered the impact of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
There was a huge crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas well according to Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus. The huge crisis was nine African Americans tried to attend a formerly all white school. These nine African American students were now and forever more known as The Little Rock Nine. The nine student names were Minniejean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Earnest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Pattillo, Gloria Ray, Terrance Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls. When the African American students tried to enter the school they were stopped by the Arkansas National Guard.
The Ocean Hill Brownsville school controversy was a case study of race relations during the 1960’s. This predominantly black area wished to have jurisdiction over their schools’ operations and curricula. In 1967, the superintendent of schools granted Ocean Hill Brownsville “community control” of their district. The Board of Education’s action was part of a new decentralization policy that wanted to disperse New York City’s political powers locally. Once in place, the Unit Administrator, Rhody McCoy, fired several teachers inciting one of the most profound racial standoffs in the city’s history.
This became the start of legal segregation as juries couldn’t have African Americans, public schools became segregated, and African Americans had restrictions on testifying against majorities. In 1887, Jim Crow Laws started to arise, and segregation becomes rooted into the way of life of southerners (“Timeline”). Then in 1890, Louisiana passed the “Separate Car Act.” This forced rail companies to provide separate rail cars for minorities and majorities. If a minority sat in the wrong car, it cost them $25 or 20 days in jail. Because of this, an enraged group of African American citizens had Homer Plessy, a man who only had one eighth African American heritage, purchase a ticket and sit in a “White only” c... ... middle of paper ... ...t may not seem large, can have enormous effects in the future.
In 1954 the Supreme Court decided that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. As one of the first schools to integrate Central High School because known for the Little Rock Nine, a group of nine selected African American students that changed history and started to change the common thought of African Americans to a positive one. For the purpose of this paper I will discuss the positive effects of Central High School’s integration and the Little Rock Nine. In 1954, the Supreme Court decided that the segregation in public schools would be unconstitutional. About a year later they reiterated the declaration that segregation is unconstitutional and said that they needed to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” Some school district started to figure out loopholes to get around the desegregation but school officials at Little Rock, AK said that they would agree to desegregate and comply with what the Supreme Court said.