Marine and Coastal Ecosystems Degradation

1299 Words6 Pages
The ocean still remains as one of the important natural resource capital of many nations. The numerous benefits (food, climate regulation, nutrients recycling, etc) particularly the quality of life derived from marine and coastal areas have raised global concern for the adoption of sustainable strategies that will ensure the existence of marine and coastal areas in its natural state with less impact caused by externalities. The natural structure and function of coastal marine ecosystems are faced with a lot of environmental and ecological challenges. The key issues of coastal marine systems sustainability are discussed below. Coastal Marine Environmental Degradation The degree of pollutions is of a greater concern when considering sustainability issues of coastal marine systems. Land-based activities such as agriculture and industries remains the major source of coastal pollution. Untreated sewage, fertilizer run-off, pesticides, marine transport, plant emissions and industrial effluent contributes to the high nutrient pollution in the ocean causing many lost of habitats in the ocean and water quality. Dumping of waste at sea is still a common practice in coastal regions particularly in developing countries. Two million tons of agricultural, industrial and sewage waste are discharged into the world’s water daily (UN WWAP, 2003). Developing countries account for 70% of industrial untreated wastes disposed into waters which consequently flows into the sea (UN-Water, 2009). Mechanisation and construction activities involved in the extraction of oil and gas in oceans, mining of other minerals and coastal tourism in fulfilment of economic growth policies by governments posses a threat of coastal pollution. Unsustainable Marine... ... middle of paper ... ...systems to make life liveable. Education therefore becomes a fundamental solution to coastal marine sustainability issues. Works Cited British Petroleum (1984). British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy. British Petroleum, London. Food and Agricultural Organization (2008). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. UN WWAP. 2003. United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. The World Water Development Report 1: Water for People, Water for Life. UNESCO: Paris, France. UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) (2012), http://www.unesco.org http://sustsci.aaas.org/files/chap15.pdf http://www.cciced.net/encciced/policyresearch/report/201205/P020120529358302221866.pdf http://www.unep.org/dewa/africa/docs/en/aeo-2/chapters/aeo 2_ch05_COASTAL_AND_MARINE_ENVIRONMENTS.pdf http://www.unwater.org/worldwaterday/downloads/wwd09brochureenLOW.pdf.
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