It has greatly influenced human populations and human history, and even today, malaria is a leading cause of disease and death in the world with over one million deaths every year (Sherman 91). This means that every 30 seconds, a person dies from malaria. Unfortunately, the general public knows only little about the disease, which is one of the key reasons as to why so many people suffer from malaria. However, since the turn of the 20th century, a great deal of knowledge has been uncovered by microbiologists about this merciless killer. The biology behind malaria is extremely complex.
Malaria is an infectious disease that kills close to a million children every year (Miller, Ackerman, Su, & Wellems, 2013). Although there are several different species of malaria this paper is going to be addressing Plasmodium falciparum, the most fatal of the species. The parasitic infection of P. falciparum can lead to many negative effects including death. This paper will explore the ways in which the disease in contracted, the risk factors as well as the pathogenesis of the parasite and ultimately the potential treatment options based on the progression of the disease process. Causative Agent, Mode of Transmission and Risk Factors P. falciparum is a protozoan parasite that once it has infected its human host causes the disease known as Malaria (Lehne, 2013, p.1238).
Mosquito eradication and nets are also ways of preventing malaria. Unfortunately, there are many difficulties with creating malaria vaccines, so they are currently still under development. Every 30 seconds, at least one person dies of malaria. About 350-500 million people are infected with malaria each year, and about 1.3-3 million of these result in death. In the next 20 years, the death rate is expected to double (“Malaria,” 2006).
While malaria is a curable disease if noticed early enough, there are still hundreds and hundreds of deaths due to malaria every year. This is because not everyone has access to the medicines that can be used to prevent this awful disease. In the last couple of years, a lot of progress has been made in developing a cure or vaccine for malaria. Hopefully, one will be developed within the next few years. Works Cited World Book Millenium 2000, pages 95-96 The New Complete Medical and Health Encyclopedia Volume Two, pages 591-593 Encyclopedia of Family Health, pages 993-996 www.malaria.org www.cdc.gov www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/224/Malaria.html
“Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia: Ebola hemorrhagic fever.” Updated Feb. 2, 2004. URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001339.htm, accessed on 12/5/05. Waterman, Tara. “Tara’s Ebola Site: Honors Thesis: Stanford University.” Updated March 1, 1999. URL: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/filo.html, accessed on 12/9/05.
Malarial infections are an ongoing epidemic that millions contract globally. According to the recently published World Malaria Report by the World Health Organization (2013), during the year 2012, the number of known cases totaled 207 million with about 627,000 deaths. This number, fortunately, is decreasing over the years due to numerous interventions and education in endemic regions. The life cycle of the Plasmodium parasites has been understood for years; however, recent studies have shown that some individuals are more susceptible to infections while others are more resistant. Plasmodium falciparum, the leading cause of the most severe cases of malaria, has been the topic of these studies.
Through a Mosquito, it enters the bloodstream and after 2 weeks of incubating, it multiplies and takes over red blood cells. Because of its ability to evolve and widespread use of the best drug used to fight it, it is becoming drug-resistant. "The population structure of the resistant parasites in the region is 'strikingly different' to other countries." "It is as if there are different ethnic groups of artemisinin-resistant parasites inhabiting in the same region." Increased efforts are needed to prevent the malaria from spreading around the world.
However, malaria can also be spread through a transfusion of infected blood or by sharing a needle with an infected person. There are four different species of parasites that cause malaria. They are: n the Plasmodium falciparum (which is the most fatal) n P. vivax, n P. malariae, and n P. ovale. When an infected mosquito bites a person, the parasites enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver. They multiply in the liver, and then travel back into the blood, where they continue to grow and multiply so quickly that they clog blood vessels and rupture blood cells.
When it gets to the liver, it invades the hepatocytes and a period of cell division take place. This is where the asexual reprodu... ... middle of paper ... .... Researchers found that 10% of the people that were tested had vivax malaria and among those people were Duffy negative (McNeil, 2013). The researchers discovered unknown genetic mechanisms that the P. vivax parasite could give other ways to attack the red blood cells and help understand how Duffy-negative people are becoming less immune to it. The researchers concluded that vivax malaria is “rapidly evolving” and “important genes” might have been missed that allows the P.vivax to become susceptible to even Duffy negative people (AAAS, 2014).
Angola Among the four types of parasites of malaria, plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest type. Malaria is usually transmitted from person to person by the bite of a female mosquito genus of the protozoan parasite Anopheles that needs blood for its eggs. Those microscopic parasites are transported via bloodstream to liver. Once they reach the liver, they start to damage the liver’s cell and their reproduction begins. The liver after the attack becomes swollen, causing its cell to burst and consequently, it releases the merozoite which is an egg cell, beginning then their life cycle.