His answer begs the question as he states that our existence must come from God since he punishes the unjust and rewards those who are good. Another proposition that must be established before the crux of the argument may be presented is that although God gave human beings free will, we must use it to live rightly. This again is resting on the assumption that God rewards the just and punishes those who use their free will to sin. Augustine proposes that God does not punish those who live rightly. Moreover, if free will was intended for living rightly and unjustly, then punishment of those who sin and reward for those who live rightly would not be justified.
The basis of this theory is that God is the lawmaker and as devout free agents, we choose to follow His commands. Morality is determined by the commandments of God. Morally right is considered as that which is commanded by God and morally wrong is that which is forbidden by God (Rachels, p.50). God does not compel us to obey His commands and therefore this theory contains some attractive features. One of the attractive features is that it solves the problem of objectivity in morality (Rachels, p. 50).
To Luther, God alone could grant salvation. Despite this freedom, Christians still had to obey earthly laws. The differences of spiritual and temporal freedom seemed contradictory but for Luther it was clear that faith would free the Christian soul. Luther defined freedom for a Christian as freedom through faith. Salvation was granted by God alone.
The categorical imperative on the other hand is unconditioned and thus entirely a priori. It refers to actions that are not dependent on anything but are necessary in and of itself. We can only achieve good will and thus morality by isolating our motives and desires and acting out of the sake of duty. To aid... ... middle of paper ... ...t freedom is the basis of a rational being’s will. Since we know that the universal principle of morality is derived from a rational being’s will due to the Formula of Autonomy, we can therefore conclude freedom is the basis for the universal principle of morality.
However, he did think that God was a postulate of practical reason. The word postulate meaning an assumption of truth as the basis of an argument or theory, although Kant used the term in a stronger sense, to denote the idea of something which is required to be the case. The postulates of morality, for example, denote the assumptions that must be made by anyone who accepts an objective morality. Kant had great trust in the universe being fair, and that if summum bon... ... middle of paper ... ...ee it as an aim and would therefore never strive to achieve it. With a goal or an aspiration, there is always the chance that we may not acquire it, which essentially makes us make every effort.
Pelagius’ entire concept of free will is man’s ability to do as he pleases because he is in absolute control of his own actions. However, with this freedom of choice comes the sole responsibility for the corresponding repercussions. Whether man chooses evil opposed to virtue or vice versa, the according fault or praise would lie within himself and none other. Though, man does not a... ... middle of paper ... ... human free will. According to Augustine, free will could allow man to desire against sin but what actually controlled his actions to stay righteous was God’s grace.
This thus causes difficulty for the Judeo-Christian-Islamic God who possess both qualities of being all-loving and omnipotent. David Hume is a proponent of this view and argues that the sheer amount of evil, which may outweigh the good, in the world makes dubious that a deity exists. The main response to this kind of an argument is known as the free-will defense. It is based on the premise that for God to create self-directly and independent agents like humans, he had to grant a certain amount of freedom to them, and this freedom would inevitably result in human-to-human evil. It has been proposed that there need not be a contradiction between God creating morally free agents and making it the case that all their actions turn out to be good.
More so, this paper will seek to understand that the presence of evil is not a result of Satan, but God providing humans with free will. In Paradise Lost, Milton uses the creation story as a strategy to explain that while free will and reason may facilitate us to obey God, it confronts mans innate selfish needs that causes us to disobey God, not Satan. Most Christian denominations understand free will from the fall of man. In the same instance, the fall of man is one that illustrates the original sin and man’s disobedience to God that results in our fall from God’s grace. In Book IV, Milton seeks to understand the presence of evil by the creation story.
In all, one should reject both that it is right because God commands it and God commands it because it is right. Whatever is “right” is good to the degree that it fulfills its purpose. Based upon God’s standard of goodness, this is true because He is the ultimate creator of everything. The Euthyphro Dilemma is not an atheistic view on religion or the existence of God by any means, but rather an issue for deeper thought. Overall, this leads us closer to believing in Christianity and more so, God Himself.
Luther defines free will as nonessential due to the fact that while God is in fact the divine ruler, He would love for us to succeed with his grace and knows we cannot do it on our own. If we were to look more in depth at the ‘God concealed, God revealed’ and applied it to Luther’s idea on free will, it may surprise us as to how much we rely on God when we feel like we have free