The gender binary i a cultural tool that implements that reproductive power. The communication of gender is what creates the normalcy and applies the use of performance assigned and learned gender roles. The assignment of the gender binary is examined in Judith Butler's Bodies that Matter, where performativity is connected to Derrida's theory of citationality and authenticity/inauthenticity. These concepts and the regard to materiality is what made the obscene nature of the book so subjective to the individual reading: “The classical configuration of matter as a site of generation or orginination becomes especially significant when the account of what an object is and means requires recourse to its originating principle” (Butler 31). The nature of matter is Western thought is to presc... ... middle of paper ... ...eeply rooted these ideologies run.
Whereas, Devor focuses mainly on the idea that gender behavior is portrayed mainly among two different categories: masculinity and femininity, the expectation that society has put upon male and female disregarding any biological traits. Furthermore, both could agree with the idea that society has an effect on how an individual should act based on their gender. Yet, additionally Devor would most likely disagree with Blum regarding the assumption that a biological factor is involved in this following case, but I reside on Blum’s case. Although society is indeed one of the major contributions as to how one should act, as Devor states, biology is somewhat like a foundation that leads to how one should behave as they grow and acknowledge their gender difference as well, residing on Blum’s argument. Aaron Devor’s argument reflects completely on the concept that society is the major development of how each gender should act placing them in two categories that configures which is which.
In “History and Sexuality Vol. I”, Foucault concerns himself primarily with the idea of sex, and how sex is influenced by, and influencing society and individuals. Sex is traditionally viewed as a real, biological entity from which we conclude that there is such a thing as sexuality. Foucault disagrees, arguing that sex is an “imaginary thing” produced by the idea of sexuality in order to maintain a coherent image (Foucault, 155-156). The body is a conglomerate of culturally constituted meanings, and sex is an “imaginary point” (CITE)- the mere result of a materiality.
As society adjusts, so do its definitions of gender. Politics is the other key word in Scott’s statement that must be defined. Politics, according to Scott in “Women’s History”, is not just formal government but all relationships involving unequal distributions of power. Scott uses this broad definition of politics in order to explain the “cultural determination of the terms of sexual difference”. In other words this definition allows for a more complete explanation of what has shaped society’s e... ... middle of paper ... ...he role of historians should be to record history and its significance.
In order to understand the effects that ideas of femininity have on literary texts, we must first acknowledge what the term means. Clearly both terms derive from the original sex of the being, whether male or female, and can be similarly tied in with notions of gender, either masculine or feminine, which are said to be constructs, or labels, created by society. However `masculinity' and `femininity' become, on some levels, dislodged from the idea of the biological makeup and gender constructs, and instead tend to be described in terms of discourse. It is not just the sex and gender of a being that determines their actions, but instead their thoughts and opinions. This essay will assess ideas of femininity in reference to James' The Turn of The Screw, and Shakespeare's Othello.
Therefore, he suggests that the production of “truth” is not entirely separable from power, and knowledge is power, as it constitutes new objects of inquiry that can be manipulated and controlled (1994:97). In other words, true discourses do not exist since all discourses are merely products of a society that attempts to exert power over people, which is percei... ... middle of paper ... ...controlled by the “uniform truth of sex” (Foucault 1978:69). Thus, the moral rules over what is considered normal or abnormal regarding sex and sexual orientation are enforced and regulated by hegemonic institutions. These institutions act as vehicles to produce docile individuals that subject themselves to the so-called true discourses that are established in society at any given time. In this way, Foucault correctly claims that disciplinary power fashions individuals who voluntarily subject themselves to self-surveillance.
West and Zimmerman go on to discuss the difference between sex, sex category, and gender. They also concentrate on gender, submitting that instead of an essential part of our nature it is an act we portray daily (Kivisto 2011). West and Zimmerman take on gender was revolutionary but at its very foundation is the idea of status in American society. Generally, gender difference has been used to subjugate the female sex category. Georg Simmel also dealt with status in his essay on Fashion.
The creation of gender expectations by society creates a restricting definition of gender roles and sexuality that vary from culture to culture. Society created the role of gender and created an emphasis on the differences between the two genders. Alma Gottlieb states: “biological inevitability of the sex organs comes to stand for a perceived inevitability of social roles, expectations, and meanings” (Gottlieb, 167). Sex is the scientific acknowledgment that men and women are biologically different; gender stems from society’s formation of roles assigned to each sex and the emphasis of the differences between the two sexes. The creation of meanings centers on the expectations of the roles each sex should fill; society creates cultural norms that perpetuate these creations.
However, modern sociolinguistics attempt to undermine these radical statements by approaching the question analytically drawing on evidence from the fields of anthropology, discourse analysis, dialectology, ethnography and social psychology to investigate whether women's and men's communication differs to the extent described in psychology books and what are the factors that could contribute to the development of what is known to be sex-preferential language patterns . From the linguistic point of view, It could be argued that the question itself imposes pre-conceptions of the gendered talk as it assumes that speakers are divided in two groups called "women" and "men"' and that because those groups unarguably differ, the language they use is shaped by their sex characteristics. In exploring the question whether women and men speak differently, it is necessary to focus on considering the notion of the andocentric approach to gender, the concept of 'acquiring' ... ... middle of paper ... ... women speak. However, while Gray states that need a translator to help them with communication, Cameron claims that the differences in how men and women express themselves are minor and do not affect understanding of the opposite sex. The key contrast in the approaches undertaken by Gray and the feminists is why those discrepancies exist.
In this case, Kant’s solution to the problem is a thick externalism that is minimalist. Howard Williams made a shrewd observation on Kant’s solution that the most significant of Kant’s argument involves treating oneself and their partners as objects. Therefore, this clearly, demonstrate that marriage is the only ethical desirable context for sex, Kant should start from better premise than the claims that sexual activities are restricted to marriage. There are two proposed solutions to the problem, the internalist solution and the externalist solution. Furthermore, the internalist resolutions offer advice on the modification of the character of sexual activity so that the individuals engaging in the sexual activity conform to Kant’s Second Formulation.