The Constitutional Convention of 1787 gave Madison the opportunity for which he had so long prepared. Success, he believed, was imperative because failure would lead to a return to monarchy or to the dissolution of the United Staes into several different governments. Basing his theories on the historical ... ... middle of paper ... ...y solved the problem of representation. His plan called for the creation of a senate that gave equal representation to all states and a lower house with representation based on population. Roger Sherman's public career reflected the heritage and concerns of his native New England.
As a federalist Alexander Hamilton wanted to establish a stronger federal government under a new Constitution. He met in Philadelphia with other delegates to discuss how to fix the Articles of Confederation that created a weak central government. During the meeting, Hamilton expressed his view that a dependable current source of revenue would be crucial to develop a more powerful and resilient central government. Although Hamilton played a diminutive part in the writing of the Constitution itself, he did heavily influence its ratification. In cooperation with James Madison and John Jay, Hamilton wrote fifty one of eighty five essays under the joint title The Federalist “The Federalist Paper.” In the essays, he cunningly explained and defended the newly drafted Constitution prior to its approval.
From 1776 through 1787, two political parties dominated in America – the Federalists and the Nationalists. Led by Alexander Hamilton, the moderate Nationalists believed in a substantial national government that held sovereignty over the states. The Federalists, led by Thomas Jefferson, believed in a feeble federal government and state sovereignty. Under the Articles, the Federalists held the majority view. The thirteen states assembled in an alliance they termed a “…firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare” (Articles of Confederation).
Madison emerged as a respected leader of the Congress, known for his hard work and careful preparation. Believing that the Articles of Confederation rendered the new Republic subject to foreign attack and domestic turmoil, James Madison helped set the wheels in motion for a national convention to draft the young nation's constitution. Madison led the Virginia delegation to the Philadelphia meeting, which began on May 14, 1787, and supported the cry for General Washington to chair the meeting. Madison's Virginia Plan became the blueprint for the Constitution that finally emerged, later earning him the revered title "Father of the Constitution." Having fathered the document, Madison worked hard to ensure its ratification.
The Declaration was taken to Philadelphia, to Thomas Jefferson, where he was just about to finish up with the Declaration of Independence. Many of Mason's ideas were 'decorated' and went into the Declaration of Independence (Miers 42-46). George Mason's Virginia's Declaration of Rights was used as the base for almost every other states (Collier 250). George Mason went to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 with writing a new form of government in mind, though he did not believe in a strong central government. He agreed with the Virginia Plan.
Madison's Twenty-nine letters have proved to be the most memorable in their balance and ideas of governmental power. It is not clear whether The Federalist Papers, written between October 1787 and May 1788 had any effect on New York's and Virginia's ratification of the Constitution. Encyclopedia Britannica defines Federalism as, "A mode of political organization that unites independent states within a larger political framework while still allowing each state to maintain it's own political integrity" (712). Having just won a revolution against an oppressive monarchy, the American colonists were in willing to replace it with another monarchy style of government. On the other hand, their experience with the disorganization under the Articles of Confederation, due to unfair competition between the individual states, made them a little more receptive to an increase in national powers.
Madison attended the College of New Jersey which later took the name of Princeton University; he took a liking to history and politics, that opened bigger doors for the soon to be president of the United States. In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was ratified; while a member of the Virginia State Legislature, Madison helped create the Virginia State Constitution. He also went on to becoming a very important part of changes with the Articles of Confederation, there were 85 essays combined, Madison wrote 29 of them which were known as the “Federalist Papers”, he requested amendment be made to the Constitution, he created the importance of the Declaration of Independence, which in turn led to the implementation for the Bill of Rights. Madison’s overall contribution to the U.S. Constitution earned him the nickname the “Father of the Constitution”. Madison pointed out that there were weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation, a few would soon to be amended were, that the central government had no executive branch which caused for no unity in policy-making and no way to coordinate the work of the different committees, had no court system, and congress did not have the power of levy or collect taxes-it could only raise money by borrowing or requesting money from states.
Towards the end of the Revolutionary War, the people felt they needed a document to secure their independence from Britain. This document was the Articles of Confederation. Shortly after that, a new document was formed to what we know as the Constitution of the United States. These documents were similar but more different at the same time with each other, and each granted specific powers to the national government. By throwing off the British monarchy it left the states without a central government.
The Articles set up the first legislative system that unified the thirteen states that battled in the American Revolution. A major theme that was discussed in the essays centers around the idea that the United States could not continue to endure under the Articles of Confederation and the weaknesses that accompany it. The Articles gave states the authority to create their own laws, however they were unsuccessful in creating a strong government. The essay suggested that immediate action be taken to prevent the impending anarchy that would ensue under these Articles. Philosophers that shaped and influenced the Federalist include Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu and John Locke.
When the Americans won the war the new leaders were aware that they would need to develop a government. The Articles of Confederation were written and adopted by the United States for this purpose. (Harr, 2012... ... middle of paper ... ...H., (2012) Constitutional law and the criminal justice system. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Farrand, Max, (1913) The framing of the constitution of the united states.