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Intelligence Definition and Measurements

Psychologists have differed on the definition for intelligence and how to measure intelligence. In this paper the definition of intelligence and how it is measured will be discussed by comparing and contrasting the two intelligence tests and two achievement tests chosen from the Mental Measurement Yearbook. The intelligence tests chosen were the Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (PTONI) and the Test of Memory and Learning, 2nd ed., (TOMAL-2) and the achievement tests chosen were the Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (BASI) and the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd ed. (DAS-II). The measures of the intelligence tests will be evaluated for reliability, validity, normative procedure, and bias, and then compared with the achievement tests.

Definition of Intelligence

According to Cohen and Swerdlik, (2010), “Intelligence is a multifaceted capacity that manifests itself in different ways across the life span but in general included the abilities and capacities to acquire and apply knowledge to reason effectively and logically, to exhibit sound judgment, to be perceptive, intuitive, mentally alert, and able to find the right words and thoughts with facility, and to be able to cope with and adjust to new situations and new types of problems” (p. 277). This definition is very broad but inclusive. Professionals in psychology have different definitions and personal biases that make a standard definition difficult. Some professionals believe intelligence is observable but others believe life experiences influence and develop intelligence and form information to deal with future situations. Various psychologists, behavioral specialists and lay people have different definitions or ideas of what intelligence is. A widely accepted defini...

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