16 PF Personality Test Resolving the conflict of Reliability vs. Accuracy in the 16 PF test Introduction: For psychologists, one of the more popular theories espoused is the trait approach to personality, or “the idea that people have consistent personality characteristics that can be measured and studied” (Kalat, 2002, 512). However there are several problems that arise. First, there are significant cross-cultural differences, so one set of personality traits for one culture may differ considerably for another. The next problem would concern the creation of a test that could accurately measure these traits.
The traditional approach correlational methods are used to quantify the association among test score and criterion. The PF model differs from traditional validity assessment not only with respect to how validity is conceptualized but also with respect to empirical emphasis. The PF model switches emphasis of validity theory and research from outcome to process and from correlation to experimentation. A process-driven approach and traditional validity assessment can enhance assessment procedures in the psychology field. This can enhance researchers’ knowledge of test score misuse by enlightening the fundamental intra-an interpersonal dynamics that guide to differential performance (and differential prediction) in different groups (Bornstein,
Intelligence, meaning “the mental ability the power of learning and understanding” (Hawkins, 1988). In 1905 Binet suggested that intelligence is the ability to comprehend, judge and reason well (1905, cited in P, Smith et al, 2003) and Wechsler describes intelligence along a similar line agreeing that the ability to adapt to circumstances and rational thinking are part of intelligence (cited in Gross, 1992). Three definitions that follow a similar line, the first being from Piaget who sees intelligence as an ongoing process of learning, organising, developing and adapting to situations (Pyle, 1979). The definition from Hebb is that it has two meanings, one being “an innate potential, the capacity for development, a fully innate property that amounts to the possession of a good brain & a good neural metabolism”(cited in Heim, 1970, p24) the second meaning is, the functioning of the brain which has developed with the infl... ... middle of paper ... ...d Paperback Dictionary 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University press Heim.A.
Let us explore the effects that intelli-gence has on people, and how emotional intelligence plays a more important role than we think. The phrase multiple intelligence stems from different studies done by people dedicated to finding resolution and more detailed information on what intelligence really means. Pfiefer (1999) states that people look at intelligence many different ways. Graibeh (2012) identifies with studies showing intelligence is broken down by domains in the brain, left and right. Smith (2008) also breaks down the multiple kinds of intelligence by the way the brain is used.
However, estimation of threats and decision-making are outcomes of human thinking. Analysts and policymakers create mental models, or short cuts to manage complex, changing environments. In other words, to make sense of ambiguous or uncertain situations, humans form cognitive biases. Informed because of personal experience, education, and specifically applied to intelligence analysis, Davis (2008) also adds, biases formed by factors such as past reporting and organizational norms (Davis 2008, 158-160). Former Central Intelligence Analyst Jones (1998) defines biases as, “an unconscious belief that conditions, governs, and compels our behavior” (Jones 1998, 22).
Many theories explain intelligence. Cattell, Gardener, Sternberg, Galton, & Spearman are just a few of those theorists. Intelligence is a wide scope and will be seen throughout this research paper. ‘‘Intelligence is the ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world’’ (Woolfolk,1998). The two main ways of measuring intelligence is ‘G’ and ‘S’ intelligence.
Ellis, R., (2008). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Second Edition. Oxford: OUP. Harmer, J., (2007).
Intelligence is having the ability to have reason and logic, the act of understanding and having the capability to apply aspects of knowledge and skill to everyday life. Throughout psychological research there are many psychometric theorists with a range of significant theories for intelligence, examples include; Charles Spearman and his theory of ‘g’ in 1927, Cattell’s 1963 theory of fluid ‘Gf’ and crystallized intelligence ‘Gc’, John Carroll’s 1997 three tiered model of intelligence, Sternberg’s layperson’s definition, Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligence and Salovey and Mayer’s 1990 theory of emotional intelligence. Lovie posited the idea that Charles Spearman’s early statistical contributions are regarded as “the earliest version of a factor analysis” (Dreary et al, 2008, p. 2). Spearman’s many works on human intelligence differences include the paper where he discovered the general factor in human intelligence and his accounts of the measurement of human
Verbal Intelligence; Non-verbal Intelligence; Concrete Reasoning; and Abstract Reasoning are several of the mental abilities that have been identified by psychologists (Santrock, 2013). Spearman’s thoughts were that intelligence is general cognitive ability that can be numerically expressed and measured. The pro of using this theory to determine intelligence some abilities and skills actually do have correlation. The con of using this theory to determine intelligence is human abilities being as diverse as they are cannot be lumped together in one g factor. Howard Gardner the Theory of Multiple Intelligence Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence focuses more on how numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people’s abilities (McFarlane, 2011).