Identifying The Causative Agent Of Hiv Infection And The Mode Of Transmission For Infectious Agent
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A 31-year-old HIV-infected woman presents with severe diarrhea and dizziness. She has long-standing HIV disease and her most recent CD4 count was 24 cells/mm3. For approximately 2 years, she has not taken any medications related to her HIV disease. The diarrhea began about 10 days ago and now she is having 10 to 15 watery stools per day, abdominal cramping, and nausea. Physical examination shows a thin female with a temperature of 38.1°C, blood pressure of 86/60 mmHg, and minimal diffuse abdominal tenderness with deep palpation. A modified acid-fast stain on a stool sample is presumptively identified as Cryptosporidium species.
1. Describe the causative agent of HIV infection and the mode of transmission for this infectious agent.
The causative agent of HIV infection, in the U.S. and most parts of the world, is the HIV-1 virus. It is a single stranded RNA virus of the retrovirus family (lentivirus subgroup). Different strains have also been identified using genome sequencing. The HIV-2 virus (antigenically distinct from type 1) is the causative agent prominent in West Africa and India. It has a less efficient transmission and slower disease progression (Baker, 2011, p. 54). People with HIV-2 tend not to develop AIDS. There are three main modes of transmission for this infectious agent: sexual contact, blood-to-blood contact, and perinatally. The mode of transmission is certainly not casual; it can only occur when "infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions from one person are deposited onto a mucous membrane or into the bloodstream of another person." Data shows that sexual contact is the most frequent mode of HIV transmission. Due to HIV being present in blood, items such as needles, syringes, etc. serve as a direct route of t...
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...ing, importance of correct dosage, and signs/symptoms of hyperglycemia. It is also important to encourage patients to ensure adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, to reduce risk of bone loss (Deglin, 2011, p. 58).
13. Discuss the new class of antiretroviral drugs: the chemokine receptor 5 antagonists. Include the pharmacokinetics, actions and adverse effects.
Chemokine receptor 5 antagonists inhibit HIV from entering into the host cell. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, are integral for the virus to enter the cell, Therefore, by inhibiting these chemokine receptors the HIV disease process can be slowed. Maraviroc, a CCR5 Antagonist, can lead to the adverse effects of hepatotoxicity, cardiovascular effects, and HIV transmission. It is important to inform patients that, even when HIV RNA is undetectable, they are still infectious (Silvestri, 2014, p. 67).