One can see a similar yet less extreme situation in eighteenth century Ireland, as depicte...
The Protestant Reformation can be described as a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches around Europe*. Henry VII during this time wanted Ireland to follow the religious changes which he was making in England and therefore started a reform against the Catholic Church in the country. These changes dealt mainly with the way the Church was run as he closed down monasteries and ordered the bible and other catholic scripture to be written in English. Other rulers after Henry VII tried other methods of reform by attempting to change the beliefs of the Irish people such as Elizabeth I who declared the leader of the Church of Ireland to be an English monarch and she also introduced fines on the failure to attend mass on Sunday. Despite these attempts by the English to spread a reform around Ireland it was largely a fail but certain aspects of the reform have had an effect and can still be seen to this day. This essay will discuss when the Protestant Reformation occurred in Ireland and the reasons why it failed.
Ozment, Steven E. Introduction. The Age of Reform (1250-1550): An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe. New Haven: Yale UP, 1980. 13. Print.
The ‘Accelerated Growth’ excerpt from Blockman’s and Hoppenbrouwer’s Introduction to Medieval Europe 300-1550 puts forth an underlying assertion that there is casual relationship between popular agricultural innovations, political organisation and cultural & social expansion in the medieval period. The relationship being inferred is that as a result of vast population growth in the period, greater need for forms of social order and authority also grew, and thus, as a result a whole new culture and social order of courtly behaviour, knighthood and a new state of peasantry were born.
The time in which this all took place and the author’s background play an important role in understanding this proposal. During the 18th century, the English and Irish were in the midst of a political, economic, and religious struggle. One of the biggest obstacles was the Catholi...
Hunger is a film written by Edna Walk and Steve McQueen and also directed by Steve McQueen. McQueen, an Englishman, is known in the art industry for having a very creative and detailed eye for identifying, capturing, and magnifying the slightest detail and assigning it a multitudinous of different contextual meanings. Hunger, McQueen’s first feature film, does not disappoint or deviate from his artistic fashion and as a result, Hunger brings to life the political, social, and disturbingly graphic conflicts that occurred in the Maze prison complex during the hunger strike of 1981. The historical context of Hunger, being released into the current media market, acts as an emotional thermometer for gauging how modern-day society remembers, learns from, and reflects on this modern-day historical event that is personal, yet, controversial to many people in the UK and around the world.
“Modernity” during the French Revolution was used as a term of abuse. At this time, during the Reign of Terror in particular, France was moving toward a more republican form of government. During their attempt at the Republic of Virtue Catholicism was a focal point of attack. These attacks ended up fueling divisions that in the end proved to be fatal for the republican government. What some people saw as the future, others disliked and associated it with “modernity.” Hence, the concept of “modernity’s” use as an abusive phrase. However, at the close of the French Revolution, “modernity” took on a new use. In the nineteenth century and beyond, “modernity” became a term associated with good things.
Modernity is the constant change that each generation of people often bring to their fellow peers and their supposedly “Pre-Existent” way of life, whether it is simply within the boundaries of their neighborhood or a certain form of deposition that government seeks to implement onto their country. Artistically, modernity has been a staple within the community of painters, performers, sculptists muralists and literary authors. In many forms, it is very possible to find certain examples and broad statements within the artworks of certain artists that represents such forms of rejection. Many forms of modernity have been present within our history without our fully being aware of them, even in our early human history modernity became present to our ancestors. During the 1500s, early modernity began to rise with the publication of a very observant book by a smart young man, in the year 1543, Nickolaus copernicus published the book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres). It is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory printed in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire. This book had offered an alternative view and model of the universe compared to Ptolemy's geocentric system, which had been very widely accepted since ancient times. This achievement to challenge what was known as the norm began to spark a very great flame within the embers of modernity. In the 1700s to near 1800s, another form of modernity was introduced, musicians began to create a very different form of music which has become to be known as romanticism, within not only the musical culture but in the everyday culture as well, romanticism was the reaction to the then “ Age of Enlightenment” and the industrial revolution. It began to focus on different
(11) He warns that he holds no interest in historiographical polemic, but he offers the schools of “well-trenched-academic views” he wants to counter. Specifically, he rejects ideas on the growth of individualism, communitarianism, sex-gender crises, and rapid modernization in family structures in the period. (10) In this same manner, he questions traditional perspectives on the heterogeneous culture of early modern England, arguing instead the divided nature of the area by city allegiances. (11-12) He covers other schools of examining this type of material well in the introduction, showing the type of history he writes as detailed, even including those on the fringe, such as unwed couples and single mothers. The main thesis reads well, but his examination the privatization of the nobility is sparse, with the book largely focusing on common life. After his combination of social, cultural, and religious history, he calls for more work in his field of early modern culture, rather than political, intellectual, religious, constitutional, noble, Parliamentary, and military histories. (482) By his work and future research on the commoner’s adaptation of these rites of passage, historians can find better examples of the nature of people living in the “Renaissance, Reformation, Revolution, and Restoration”.
In our modern lives today we live in a world of malls, fashion, cellphone, sports cars and drones. Everyday there is something new to add to what we define as modern. Whether it’s a new television show, new brand of shoe or some accessory for our pets what we define as modern is ever changing. R. W. Southern and Jacob Burckhardt have both made valid points about the making of the Modern Ages; however, they both are very subjective in their viewpoints. Burckhardt insists the idea of modernity came from the Renaissance in Italy in the fourteenth and fifteenth century. But R.W. Southern suggests that the Renaissance in Northern France during the eleventh and twelfth century was the beginning for the modern mindset.* Each has also described how