Federalism and the Supreme Court
"The powers delegated. . .to the federal government are few and defined. . . .The powers reserved to the several states will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties and properties of the people and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State."
John Marshal’s role as chief justice of the Supreme Court had a profound impact on our government. He is considered to be one of the most influential leaders of our nations. His legacy is carried on through the decisions made by various court cases presented to the Supreme Court. Marshall’s rulings in the cases strengthened our nation. These decisions defined the role of the American government, recognized the Indian Natives as a nation, and promoted economic growth.
The court lined that a new president, Jefferson, through his secretary of state, Madison, was mistaken to stop Marbury from getting the bureau as justice of the peace for District of Columbia. However, it likewise ruled that the court didn’t have jurisdiction in the case and couldn’t strength Jefferson and Madison to seat Marbury. The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided Supreme Court authority, but the Marshall court controlled the Act of 1789 to be an unauthorized delay of judiciary power into the dominion of the executive.
Marbury v. Madison was a Supreme Court case to resolve the dispute of Marbury’s appointment in 1803. Before he left presidential office, John Adams made a set of last minute appointments. According to these, he named Federalists to the most of the positions. Among others, he appointed William Marbury “as a justice of the peace in the District of Columbia but failed to deliver Marbury’s commission before midnight” (Boyer 226). Marbury needed the notice of appointment; however, new secretary of state Republican John Madison refused to send it to him. As a result, Marbury asked the Supreme Court for help. The Chief of Justice, John Marshall, went back to available documents to find out what he was supposed to do. Finally, he presented that although Marbury has the right to the appointment, according to Constitution, no one has the right to force Madison to deliver Marbury’s commission.
The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Rule of Law by Charles F. Hobson examines the judicial career of John Marshall, as well as the legal culture that helped to shape his political beliefs and his major constitutional opinions. The author sources much of his information from the formal opinions that Marshall issued during his judicial career. From these writings, Hobson presents Marshall 's views on law and government and provides explanations for what in Marshall 's life influenced those beliefs.
A landmark case in United States Law and the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States, under Article Three of the US Constitution. This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams' Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Being unable to assume the appointed offices without the commission documents, Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional. The Court rendered a unanimous decision, throwing out the case.
The judicial power, also known back then as The Weakest Branch, was created to achieve an effective collaboration of the powers, what we call now Check and Balances. One of the framers of the Judicial Power was John Marshall. Chief Justice John Marshall is one of the main figures in the history of the US Judicial System. He was the youngest Chief Justices in the history of the United States and was the developer of the most important power of the Supreme Court, The Judicial Review.
The case of Marbury v. Madison centers on a case brought before the Supreme Court by William Marbury. Shortly after Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams in the election of 1800, Congress increased the number of circuit courts. Adams sought to fill these new vacancies with people who had Federalist backgrounds. To accomplish this, he used the powers granted under the Organic Act to issue appointments to 42 justices of the peace and 16 circuit court justices for the District of Columbia. Adams signed the appointments on his last day in office and they were subsequently sealed by Secretary of State John Marshall. However, many of the appointments were not delivered before Adams left office and Jefferson ordered the deliveries stopped when he took charge. Marbury was one of Adams’ appointees for justice of the peace. Marbury brought a case before the Supreme Court seeking a writ of mandamus compelling the new Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the appointment.
The new chief justice, John Marshall, understood that if the Court awarded Marbury a writ of mandamus (an order to force Madison to deliver the commission) the Jefferson administration would ignore it, and this would weaken the authority of the courts. And if the Court denied the writ, it might appear that the justices had acted out of fear.
The First Bank of the United States was founded in 1791, headquartered in Philadelphia. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton headed the movement to create this first bank. “Alexander Hamilton, the first Treasury secretary, believed a national bank would stabilize the new government’s shaky credit and support a stronger economy — and was an absolute necessity to exercise the new republic’s constitutional powers” (Irwin 2013). With Hamilton’s influence, Congress agreed upon a central banking system. Its functions as a bank were very simple. It accepted deposits, issued notes, made loans, and purchased securities. It was the biggest corporation in the country at the time, and while it provided financial stability, many people did not trust such a powerful institution in...