The possible unknown acids were 2-chlorobenzoic acid, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-methylbenzoic acid. The purification of the isolated unknown acid was performed by recrystallization and its identity was established by analyzing the melting point range of the pure product and comparing it to the provided standards. In addition, a mixed melting point experimentation enhanced the fidelity of the unknown's identity when approximately equal amounts of the unknown and one of the standards (at a time) were mixed and the melting point range was recorded. Theory: Explain the theory behind acid base extraction. Why is it possible to separate compounds of different polarity?
INTRODUCTION The project was about calculating the major and minor head losses. In the first experiment, it investigate the minor head loss through pipes of different diameter and roughness, also through elbows. The experiment was about obtaining two different pressures at point 1 and 2 so we can obtain the difference in pressure so we can calculate the friction that is also present in Darcie's equation of head loss. However, in the second experiment, the purpose was to calculate the major losses from both laminar and turbulent flow. The point was to find the friction factor that is also present in Darcie's equation.
Chlorinated solvents refer to the chemical composition compounds that contain chlorine such as carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene or methylene chloride (Cherry, 1992). Based on their characteristic, chlorinated solvent have been used worldwide in many field of industries and commercial purposes such as cleaning solutions, paints thinners, pesticides and thinning solutions (Worker Health Protection Program [WHPP], 2013). According to Cherry (1992), chlorinated solvents are one of the most compounds that contributed to the groundwater contamination in the industry field of North America and Europe. These solvents can bring negative impacts towards human population based on their health condition, for example, they can cause cancer or any serious diseases due to the contamination (Cherry, 1992). Grindstaff (1998) stated that groundwater become contaminant when the chlorinated solvents flow into the river.
In many developing countries, the main cause of death is diarrhea contracted by drinking water. Human and animal wastes are not the only water pollutants. Sometimes pollutants can come from an oil spill or another single source. When this occurs, it is called point source pollution. (“ Categories of Pollution: Point Source”, 2008) The global picture of water and health has a strong local dimension with some 1.1 billion people still lacking access to improved drinking water sources and some 2.4 billion to adequate sanitation.
Cambodia UNEP Pollution of Public Water Pollution of Public Water I. Topic Background Fresh, clean, and plentiful water provides the foundation for many communities all around the world. We depend on fresh water to survive, but currently we are heading towards a water crisis, even in California. The changing climate patterns are always threatening lakes, rivers, and even the ocean from melting ice caps, and the key sources that we need for drinking water are being overdrawn or polluted. From severe and frequent droughts to flooding across the world, many of the most profound and immediate and pressing impacts of climate change relates to water.
In addition, the fishing industry was suffering from the pollutants being deposited into their fishing territory. A survey conducted by the Federal Department of Agriculture found that the fishing industry was losing three million dollars each year from toxic pollutions and other problems including eutrophication (Public Broadcasting Service, 2002). Both big business and ordinary people suffer when their water supply is overly enriched. Families all around the world are living without clean bathing and drinking water. Unfortunately, about forty percent of the world’s population live in areas that are consider water impoverished (World Resources Institute, 2008).
Thousands of lakes in the U.S. and Canada have suffered serious losses of aquatic life due to acidic rain. Replacing petroleum fuels with bio fuels can dramatically reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide emissions from the transportation sector. Using any amount of ethanol or bio diesel in blends displaces the corresponding amount of sulphur in petroleum, thereby decreasing sulphur emissions. .
The huge population discharges their wastes and untreated sewage into the Nile. The over population of the country has also contributed to the contamination of the River Nile (Sowers). The increase in the population has in turn multiplied the demand for water supply for domestic consumption and irrigation. Abundant water is available in the Nile River but it is contaminated water and is not advised for drinking or use at home. Cleaning the Nile’s water requires opening up the valves and releasing extra water, especially during winter when the Nile’s water flow decreases.
The amount of wastes have increased alarmingly by more than twice in the last two decades and experts predict further decline in water quality by 100% in next 20 years. It is a strange irony that the Hindus, who form a majority of Indian population, treat the river Ganges as sanctum sanctorium and also believe in dumping ashes of the dead that make the water impure. As a sacramental practice, the Hindus cremate their dead on the banks of the river and release the remains of the bodies, in the hope of purification of human sins and pathway to heaven for their souls. Besides this, the sacred river is also a dumping ground of unwanted or “”illegitimate infants”, animal carcass, cattle every year which are also associated with religious reasons. Therefore, in this basin of a half-billion souls, exists a dichotomy where in purification and pollution are intertwined in unholy matrimony.
The formation of the earth started off with making the bodies of water. Humans rely on water for survival. The human body is made up of seventy percent of water. It is reported that more than 1.2 billion people lack access to safe drinking water; 2.6 billion has little or no sanitation, and millions of people die annually (3,900 children a day) from diseases transmitted through unsafe water or human excreta (Vasudevan, Subramanyan, and Mehmet). The consideration of water quality is often associated with the assessment of its possible use of drinking water source (Chen 5).