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Pitot used this method in the River Seine to measure the velocities of stream flow (illustrated in Figure 1.0). Figure 2.0: Pitot Tube Source: http://user.gs.rmit.edu.au/rod/files/publications/Stream.pdf The figure above shows that one end of the tube is immersed in the stream at depth H and the water rises up the tube until all its kinetic energy is converted into potential energy; a height h above the surface of the stream. As Bernoulli's law stated that V=√2gh
The diagram below shows typical changes in the river channel: [IMAGE] The table on the next page lists out the features produced by river processes in each course. The Long Profile of a River Upper Course Middle Course Lower Course * V shaped valley * Steep gradient * Vertical erosion * Flows between interlocking spurs * Flood water rises high in valley * In flood, river moves boulders * Small discharge * Small boulders help to wear bed and banks * Load more angular and larger * Pebbels wear potholes in bed * Uneven ... ... middle of paper ... ... which to adjust to the average flow of the river. Whereas a shorter distance will only give the orange peel a small amount of velocity. There is more chance of the reading of velocity to be affected if it is taken in shorter distance as a tributary could effect the amount of water flowing at that particular place whereas the flow of the river is averaged out more over a longer distance. Bibliography: Chinese International School Geography Department Website: http://www.cis.edu.hk/sec/ss/Geography/IGCSE/INDEX.html World Wild Fund for Nature Hong Kong: http://www.wwf.org.hk/eng/conservation/hab_protect/green_dragon/hoi_ha_wan.html Text Book - New Geography 4A Text Book - The New Wider World by David Waugh Microsoft Encyclopedia Standard 2001 - WE IGCSE River Investigation Field Guide 2001
A rivers velocity can change during different courses of the river. This can be determined by the rivers gradient (how steep it is), the shape of the river, how much friction there is created by the river bed and the volume of water. Velocity is measured in meters per second. Measuring the rivers velocity is not very hard, all you need is a floating object, and anything that can measure
Water Resources Research, Vol. 32, No11, 3419-3428. (Kuo 1999) Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael, John E. Parsons, J. Wendell Gilliam. 1998. Modeling Hydrology and Sediment Transport in Vegetative Filter Strips.