Within the cella of both the Greek and Roman temples was an altar dedicated to the gods. The Greeks used elements from their temple design in the creation of these altars, and Romans sometimes modeled their sarcophagi after this design. The Sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus from his tomb on the Via Appia from 200 B.C.E depicts the elements that the Romans borrowed from Greek temples. It is a mixture of two styles of Greek temple, Ionic and Doric. The Ionic style can be seen in the curves on the lid whereas the Doric style is depicted in the squares on the side of the sarcophagus, where each of the vertical lines of the square is a set of columns.
Although the Romans copied many aspects Greek culture, they also have made distinct contributions. Greece and Rome have also made tremendous contributions to our civilization with art and architecture. The Greeks invented the column and the Romans took these Greek features with some of their own, such as a strong new concrete concept, dome and arches and created marvelous structures. The Roman and the Greek gods seem to relate to each other. A similarity between the two mythologies is that the symbols and designations of powers are the same in the two.
Etruscan architecture was really the beginning of Roman architecture. For example in Etruscan tombs people would find many types of architectural traits found in many Roman buildings. Like the fact they had vaulted entrances. Some cities had an influence, such as the fortified city of Norba. After this Greece started to gain control in Italy that greatly affected the Roman architecture of this time but not as much as Etruscan does in the future.
The utmost example of Hellenistic Greek sculpture. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon was one of numerous samples of monumental architecture which the Attalids counted upon to accomplish their spiritual and political purposes. Ancient Greek architects endeavored for the accuracy and excellence of workmanship that are the trademarks of Greek art in general. The two primary orders in Archaic and Classical Greek architecture are the Doric and the Ionic. Ancient Greece has brought about many world architectural arrangements along centuries.
The temple designed simply as a shelter or home for the cult statue and as a storehouse for offerings. This shelter consisted of a cella (back wall), a pronaos (columned porch), an opisthodomus (enclosure), an antae (bronze grills securing the porches), and a colonnade that provided shelter for visitors. The earliest monumental buildings in Greek architecture were the temples. Since these were solidly built and carefully maintained, they had to be replaced only if destroyed. The architectural orders, Doric on the mainland and Ionic in the eastern Aegean, were developed in the archaic temples, and their lasting example tended to make Greek architecture conservative toward changes in design or in building technology.
There is extensive overlap between Mediterranean cultures, such as the Etruscans, Greeks and Romans, due to their close proximity to each other. As a result, the monumental architecture of these societies share common characteristics, some of which are adopted from previous societies. The axiality of Etruscan architecture greatly impacted the construction and orientation Roman structures built during the Roman Empire. The massive proportions and prominent colonnades of Greek temples also reappear later in Roman temple, illustrating the connection between the two cultures. Although architects appear to create, or invent, new structures, they often adopt aspects from pre-existing buildings previously known to the society and incorporate them
These temples fell in three orders: the Doric, Ionic and Corinth (Jenkins 49). The difference between the three can be seen through the detailing and proportions of the pillars. They are each associated with their origins, that is, their capitals. At the same time, this was a means of identification and it applied to many buildings and monuments but then the temples stood out. This form of art and culture identified the religious standing of the Greek at that time in history.
The Tuscan order is what Rome later modified to build their temples. Although the Romans had some inventions of their own in architecture, such as concrete, the majority of their structures developed from the Greek style. Roman art, especially sculptures and paintings, was influenced by the Greeks because when Rome conquered Greece, much of Greek art became collectively mixed with that of Rome. Many of the Classical Greek sculptures that were later seen in Rome depicted a naturalistic representation of humans through portrait busts (Sayre 184). While the Greeks influenced Roman realism, Rome took it to a new level in revealing every wrinkle and wart.
The Greek culture was obviously the most influential out of us three and it will always be.” He then addressed the crowd and started off by mentioning Greek architecture. The Parthenon is the most important symbol of Greece’s cultural image. The temple was created to worship the Greek goddess Athena, which establishes their religious beliefs at the time. Pericles looked at Augustus Caesar and said ,“It’s stylistic conventions have become the standard of Classical architecture, and its style has influenced architecture for many centuries after it was built, including the Pantheon.” Numerous modern day buildings have adapted a Classical style. Even today, the Greeks look back at the building as a unique symbol of Greek cultural power.
Then it was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian. The Pantheon is remarkable for its size, its construction, and its design. The dome was the largest built until modern times. The present structure was probably originally built as a temple for all the pagan gods. We do hear of it as being a law-court and a reception area for Emperor Hadrian meeting his quests too.