Though it was never determined who shot the plane down, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, who were Tutsi rebels, have been blamed (The Rwandan Genocide). Immediately following the assassination, violence erupted in the capital city, Kigali. (Genocide in Rwanda) During the 100-day period after April 6, 1994, between 800, 000 and one million Tutsi people were slaughtered. (Genocide in the 20th Century: Rwanda 1994) On April 7, roadblocks began to appear and soldiers began scouring the country for any person whose identification card read “Tutsi”. Entire families were murdered, often by their own neighbors and friends, and occasionally by relatives through marriage.
A place where 85 percent of people live below the poverty line, nearly 40 percent of children are malnourished, and 7.5 million are threatened by famine, seems unrealistic (The Cry…). Sudan, being the third largest country in Africa, somehow has reached these numbers. Human Rights Watch has been investigating this situation and have posted many articles explain the reasons behind the crisis in Sudan. In October 2013, they posted an article explaining the start of this, which explains the civil war that has been going on for over two decades. This war has led to many cases or violence, rape, and battles for territorial supremacy.
Ethnic Cleansing in Sudan The government of Sudan is responsible for 'ethnic cleansing' and crimes against humanity in Darfur, which is located on Sudan's western border with Chad (. The Sudanese government, along with the Arab 'Janjaweed' militias they arm and support, have attacked the civilians of the African Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups. These attacks involved massacres, summary executions of civilians, burnings of towns and villages, and the forceful depopulation of Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa land. The militia, Muslim like the African groups, have destroyed many religious artifacts including the desecrated Qorans that belong to their enemies (Human Rights Watch, 2004, p. 5). The Sudanese government is breaching at least two articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR); Article 3, 'Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person', (General Assembly Resolution, 1948, Article 3) and Article 5, 'No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment'.
The recently coined definition of genocide among scholars and international organizations varies throughout history; however, there is the common understanding that genocide is the intentional destruction of a large group of people who are often associated with a specific origin or denomination. According to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG), part two, article six, Genocide is any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical or religious group such as: killing members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group and forcibly transferring children of the group to another group (Prevent Genocide International, 2008). Nature of Crime The mass destruction of a specific group of people often occurs due to instigation experienced by the offenders themselves. Societal difficulties, economic problems such as unemployment and inflation; and political issues such as political chaos can work as a stressor for a group of people. It is the fundamental human needs such as positive identity, control, security, and connection to others that are at risk when a group of people turns to genocide as a solution.
As of February 2003 more than four-hundred thousand Darfuri citizens have been found slaughtered on the side of the streets of their home town. Prior to 2003, Darfur, Sudan has a population of six million people. In 2003, two rebel groups came to the conclusion of the government’s neglect in decision to rise against the government of Sudan. As a result, the Sudanese government unleashed the forces of Arab militias (also known as the Janjaweed). With blood on their hands, the Janjaweed have been the accused for the misplacing of many villages and people.
The failed state notion of South Sudan, post secession. Consultancy Africa Intellgence. Retrieved March 2, 2012, from http://www.consultancyafrica.com Young, J. (2003). Sudan: Liberation Movements, Regional Armies, Ethnic Militas, and Peace.
It lasted for 100 brutal days. The Hutus then began to slaughter the Tutsis because there was no government control, so it was a perfect time to rebel. There were two Hutu rebellion forces named the Interhamwe which means, “Those Who Attack Together” and the Impuzamugami which means “Those Who Have the Same Goal.” There were many people that killed people close to them. Co-workers killed co-workers, friends killed friends, neighbors killed neighbors, and husband killed wives. They did this to save their own lives.
McClelland, David. ‚ÄúDarfur: Twenty Of War And Genocide In Sudan.‚Äù Library Journal 132.13 (2007):79-80. Literary Reference Center. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.
The Spirit of the Laws Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan Tomar, Ravi. (2004). The crisis in Sudan: issues and prospects. Retrieved September 20, 2011 from http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rb/2004-05/05rb08.htm#back
Genocide in Darfur, Inaction in the Security Council Retrieved from http://www.teachablemoment.org/high/darfur.html Straus, Scott. Rwanda and Darfur: A Comparative Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.chgs.umn.edu/histories/occasional/StrausGSP2006.pdf