Aspergillus species has known to be the main culprit of mycosis which causes aspergillosis. In Aspergillus species, A. flavus has become second cause of fungal infections in human. Mainly, usual syndromes clinically occuring, following trauma and inoculation which are keratitis, chronic granulomatous sinusitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis when talking about A. flavus infection. (Hedayati et al, 2007). Opportunistic fungal infections risk has greatly increased in severely immunocomsuppressed (Kouzmanov et al, 2002) and cancer patients (Hussein-Al-Ali et al, 2014).
Eliska Koorts 09 December 2013 Necrotizing Fasciitis (The Flesh Eating Disease). What is Necrotizing Fasciitis? Necrotizing Fasciitis is a bacterial infection of the soft tissue that decomposes subcutaneous tissue and skin. It may occur anywhere on the body but it is typically found in the upper and lower limbs such as hands, arms, legs and feet. The tissue degradation is rapid and mortality rate is high.
Although most of these diseases start as relatively minor problems, they may escalate if not treated to cause a systemic inflammatory response in which shock, severe vasodilation and even death may occur. Microorganisms of the gastrointestinal tract which are predominantly anaerobes, can cause intestinal abscess and peritonitis despite playing significant roles in bile acid conversion as well as vitamin K and ammonia production in the large bowel. In the vagina, transient organisms can often cause vaginitis. One common culprit is the candida fungus. There are many species of candida and are among the causes of the most common fungal infections.
Occasionally, red streaks may radiate outward from cellulitis. Blisters or pus filled bumps may also be present (skinsight 12/2012 pg.5). The main culprit is the bacteria Streptococcus and Staphylococcus which can enter through a break in the skin. Normal skin has many types of bacteria living on it. Cellulitis can occur in anyone.
Introduction Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast found in soil, plants, and animals. In humans infection occurs via inhalation and deposition of spores in the lungs, in most cases. In healthy people, infection will trigger an immune response via alveolar macrophages or dendritic cells. This leads to restriction of the pathogens to benign granulomas. Exposure to Cryptococcus neoformans leads to disease in immunocompromised patients and it can be fatal.
The bacteria cause cancer by infection like in Helicobacter pylori, which contributes to both gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma through chronic inflammation. Bacteria because of its highly replicative nature can easily transmit cancer. The reason behind the presence of bacteria within tumours could be due to infection via the vasculature and the ability of the bacteria to survive and grow in the hypoxic region of the tumour at a later stage in the tumour growth. Bacteria like Clostridium, Salmonella, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera and Listeria monocytogenes have seen to have associations with cancer. Some virus integrate into the host cells and initiate tumourigenesis, such as Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Cervical Cancer and Herpes Virus in Kaposi’s Sarcoma.
Streptococcus Pyogenes: More than Strep Throat S. pyogenes infections may vary from mild to life-threatening with a plethora of symptoms due to the many types of infections it causes. This bacterium is responsible for the diseases of pharyngitis, rheumatic fever, impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and toxic shock syndrome, just to name a few. Each of these infections has its own unique set of symptoms as will be explored in depth below. Streptococcus Pyogenes is a very diverse bacteria with effects ranging from nothing or a mild sore throat, to flesh eating disease, causing death in 40-60% of patients. The major and most common illnesses associated with this bacteria are: pharyngitis, Rheumatic fever, Impetigo, Erysipelas, Cellulitis, Necrotizing Fasciitis, Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (GN), and Streptococcal Toxic Shock-like Syndrome.
Soil-transmitted helminthes, also known as intestinal worm infections. It is one of the most common parasite infections in the world. These infections are most prevalent in tropical and sub tropical regions of the developed world where adequate water and sanitations are lacking. Recent estimate suggesting that A. lumbricoids infects 1,221 million people, T.trichuira 795 million, and hookworms 740 million (Desilva et., 2003). Chronic and intense soil transmitted helminthes can contribute to malnutrition and iron-deficiency anemia and also can adversely affect physical and mental growth in childhood (Drake et al.,2000.,Stephenson et al.,2000., Hotez et al.,2004).
Retrieved October 26, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lupus/basics/definition/con-20019676). Etiologic agent or agents once introduced, the body forms antibodies directed against its own tissues, cells and serum proteins. The regulatory components of the immune system are severely compromised by these autoantibodies. The number and activity of T-suppressor cells is then diminished, allowing unrestrained proliferation of B cells and resultant hypergammaglobulinemia. Combination of autoantibodies and auto antigens form, circulate, and are deposited within capillary complexes, renal glomeruli, renal interstitial, serosal membranes and the choroid plexus and in the pleural vasculature (McDonald, Compston, Edan, Goodkin, Hartung, & Lublin, 2001).
The pathophysiology of meningitis and encephalitis aids in the explanation and understanding of the symptoms, effects, and underlying agendas of the two infections. Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, membranes that encase the brain and spinal cord. Although meningitis can result from protozoal or fungal infections, bacteria and viruses typically cause the often fatal disease. Known for its sudden onset of flu-like symptoms, the infection rapidly progresses into an agonizing cascade of high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, light sensitivity, purpura (dark discolorations of the skin caused by bleeding beneath the skin), and possibly seizures. In severe cases of meningitis, limbs or extremities must be amputated due to the appearance of purpura.