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Factors that Negatively Effect Fetal Development

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Factors that Negatively Effect Fetal Development

Pregnant women that smoke cigarettes on a daily basis can greatly harm their fetus. The Tobacco smoke in cigarettes greatly reduces fetal growth through the presence of nicotine, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, cadmium and various other aromatic hydrocarbons, but the two most dangerous chemicals that are found in cigarettes are nicotine and carbon monoxide. Nicotine causes the babies heart rate to speed up, reduces placental vascularisation, constricts the placental arteries, and thickens the endothelium of placental blood vessels. This creates a reduction in the placental blood flow, and further reductions in oxygen delivery. As well nicotine interferes with the ability of the placenta to feed the baby the nutrients it requires. Therefore the babies growth is slowed down. Carbon monoxide causes growing cells to be starved of oxygen, and effects the brain. This can lead to a low birth weight and higher chance of the baby dying at birth. Smoking is the single largest modifiable( changeable) risk factor in fetal growth retardation. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with genetic defects as well as an increased incidence of congenital malformations such as cleft palates, microcephalus, and clubfoot. Mothers who smoke one pack a day during pregnancy have an 85% increased risk of having a child with mental retardation. Mothers that smoke during their pregnancy have double the chance of having a child with behavural problems.

Another one of the biggest factors that disrupts fetal growth and development is alcohol. This is a very common substance abuse of pregnant women. Everytime the pregnant mother is drinking, her fetus is also drinking. The alcohol crosses the placental barrier, and goes directly into the fetus's liver. The ethanol found in alcohol may impair the nutrient support of the fetus. Acetaldehyde, a major metabolite, crosses the placenta and is teratogenic. Since the alcohol stays in the fetus for a long time, the small liver is unable to metabolize the alcohol. The alcohol also travels through the blood stream going directly to the baby's brain, and this can damage the central nervous system. The common, severe, and hazardous side effect that happens to the fetus because of alcohol is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. This is a very serious side effect that has lasting and sometimes ...

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...e the death of the fetus.

Pregnant women should distant themselves from heavy metals. such as, lead and methyl mercury which can harm the fetus.

All pregnant women should be aware and cautious about contacting a disease. Some of the diseases are fatal and very hazardous to the fetus, while some only have minor effects on the fetus. Many of the diseases contacted by pregnant mothers are sexually contacted diseases. Some examples of these diseases are Aids, and Gonorrhea. There are also other non-related diseases such as, Rubella, and Toxoplasmolisis and, which can affect the fetus.

Toxoplasmolisis is a bacterial infection. This is a parasitic disease that can effect the fetus, by causing growth retardation.

Another harmful disease that can affect the fetus is Rubella or otherwise called German Measles. Pregnant woman that have Rubella during the first trimester can effect the fetus and cause a syndrome of birth defects called congenital rubella syndrome. This can cause deafness, cataracts, congenital heart disease, and mental retardation.

In conclusion, pregnant women should try to avoid all substances that can be potentially harmful to the fetus within them.
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