Executive Branches of Turkey and India

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Executive branches of Turkey and India are weak compared to the legislative branches of their respective countries. The head of state for Turkey is the president and the current president was elected by the Turkish Grand National Assembly, but after a 2007 Constitutional revision the next presidential election will be election by the citizens. Having parliament elect the president is concentrating power in the legislative branch of Turkey’s government but an election by the people is dispersion of power because the election is now in the hands of the people. The power of the president is outlined under Article 104 of Turkey’s constitution. The president is able to review laws passed by the legislature and ask for reconsideration (Article 104). The president appoints the prime minister, whose job is limited to implementing a vote of confidence in parliament and nominating ministers for the cabinet (Article 110).
Furthermore, a president and prime minister is also present in India’s government. India’s president is appointed by the legislative body and has minimal legislative power. The president’s power over the legislature is limited to asking for a review of bill that is asked for him to sign (Article 356). Once again, power is concentrated into the legislative branch by giving them the power to appoint the president. The prime minister is appointed by the president, and is responsible for leading the cabinet and advising the president (Article 78). The presidents of both countries are largely ceremonial because of the power concentrated within the legislature.
The legislative powers of both India and Turkey are stronger than their executive branch, and both are unitary forms of government. India’s parliament is made up of a bi...

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...ts independent of the other government branches (Article 9). Turkish courts review the constitutionality of laws enacted by Parliament and ultimately can revoke laws deemed unconstitutional (Article 148). Legislative and executive branches must abide by the decisions of the judicial system (Article 138). This serves as dispersion of governmental power that is also present in India.
The protection of Fundamental Rights is established under Article 13 of India’s constitution, states that any law that would violate the Fundament Right provisions be void. The court is able to review any law except those pertaining to the elections of legislatures (Article 237). Laws passed cannot be in conflict with the Constitution (Article 11). The judicial courts of India, though not as strong as the other branches of government, can prevent the violation of the rights of citizens.
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