The punitive terms of the Treaty of Versailles destabilized Germany and fostered resentment that helped lead to the ultranationalist platform of right-wing parties such as the Nazis, and subsequently, Hitler. Also, the new borders drawn by France and Britain for reasons of self interest rather than the best interests of the many groups living in the Middle East has disrupted the area for decades. Therefore, it is clear that the Treaty of Versailles has not ensured lasting peace; the treaty has rather destabilized Eastern Europe and the Middle East, leading to World War II and the present-day conflict in the Middle
In the 20th century, public faith in democratic nations declined at a steady pace. Partly due to the Great War, loss of Christian faith, and the Great Depression, people began to look towards other systems of government. These factors, coupled with the growing unrest among the people, gave way to what is known as The Age of Anxiety. Although the Age of Anxiety historically began in 1900, the Great War was a major contributer to the sense of displacement and chaos present during that time. The Great War, also referred to as World War One, began in 1914 and lasted until 1918.
World War I seriously damaged the economies of the European countries. Both the winners and the losers came out of the war deeply in debt. The defeated powers had difficulty paying reparations to the victors, and the victors had difficulty repaying their loans to the United States. The shift from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy caused further problems. Italy and Japan suffered from too many people and too few resources after World War I.
The policy of appeasement had good intentions, but failed to put measures against aggression by the Germany government, which eventually led to World War 2. There were arguments for and against the policy of appeasement. The British government wanted to avoid wars in the future, and this was demonstrated by the peace ballot in 1935. The horrors of World War 1 were still fresh in people’s mind and the effects of war were seen to be devastating. There was a general feeling that Germany had genuine grievances.
The World Wars severely weakened the European Empires to a point where their collapse became inevitable. The Empires became too weak militarily and economically to continue their activities in Asia and outside pressure from the United States superpower and the Japanese Occupation meant an end for imperialism in Asia. As much as European policies enacted different policies to try and halt independence movements, internal and external pressures were too much and the Empire eventually recognized that , as Harold McMillan put it, "the winds of change" were blowing across the world "whether we like it or not."
Germany's treatment at Versailles led to the rise of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and the outbreak of W.W.2 because he promised to break the terms of the treaty. One of the main reasons why Germany resented the Treaty was because it said that Germany was responsible for causing the war, in Clause 231, the ''War Guilt'' Clause. The Poletisons knew that they would get support from other countries if they enforced hard policies on Germany, and they used the Breast-Litovsk (a Treaty Germany had with Russia) as further evidence to punish Germany. Germany believed that did not feel that they had started the war; instead they believed that it was the responsibility of all of the Major European Powers or that they had lost the war - they simply hadn't won Germany also believed that the Treaty was a ''D.I.C.K.T.A.T. ', or a Dictated piece, on which they had to agree to or war would re-commence.
The wars and ultimate defeat also put France in a crisis regarding foreign trade. All of these factors contributed in crippling France economically during and after the Napoleonic wars. The Napoleonic wars was an attempt for France to assert itself as a force to be reckoned with among Europe. However in doing this they were forced to substitute this new found nationalism with a non-existent economic system. Wherever Napoleon's campaigns took him he was forced to topple monarchies using the only way he knew how; force.
When answering how the Nazi party came to rule in Germany, one must look at foreign policy in respect to the Versailles Treaty during the Second Reich. Economically, due to the settlement at Versailles, Germany would be hit by massive inflation as well as a crippling depression under the Weimar Republic. This made many people distrust the newly created Weimar Republic. Socially, Germans generally blamed the government, as well as the Treaty of Versailles for the hard times that they suffered after the First World War. This social environment gave rise to the Nazi movement and many other parties that opposes the treaty and the Weimar Republic alike.
Viewing Chamberlain as a Peacemaker After the First World War had ended in 1918, most of Europe was struggling to survive. The Treaty of Versailles was created because of the war, as countries such as France and Italy wanted to get revenge on Germany for the war, but it's harsh terms caused Germany to become vengeful. Neville Chamberlain became the prime minister in 1917, and he felt that the Treaty's terms were much too harsh. He decided that the best option was to follow appeasement to best comply with Germany. The majority of Europe (especially France and Britain) and America were angry towards Germany for the war, and therefore created the Treaty of Versailles.
But also, they wanted to avoid having a second world war. The fact that many people in Britain and France had doubts about whether the treaty was unfair or unworkable was one of the elements in appeasement and maybe that’s why Hitler got away with so much. Moreover, Germany was blamed for the war and was made to pay reparations. Hitler wanted Germany to be ‘great’. So by uniting all German speaking countries as one, he would be bringing back the wealth and land, which was taken away from Germany after World War 1.