The whole idea can be based on the capacity to develop careful observation and draw tangible conclusion pinpointing variables, which might alter the results of research. Post positivism perspective is important to facilitate development on numeric measures aided by observation in studying behaviors of individuals. Post positivism outlines a guideline which should be followed whenever researching on any research topic (Welsh, 2007, p.173). The notion of Post positivism in relation to conducting a research involves outlining a theory, collecting data, which... ... middle of paper ... ...o present a holistic case study addressing the research question “why systems resist users.” Research methodology is based on both facts and theory. As noted, the world views are based on theories and beliefs.
Introduction Research can be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research can also be viewed as a logical and systematic search of new information (Jackson, 2008). According to Tony Greenfield, research is an art aided by skills of inquiry, experimental design, data collection, measurement & analysis, interpretation and by presentation (Greenfield, 2002). According to Chilisa, research is systematic, the adoption of a strategy or a set of principles to study an issue of interest. The systematic strategy usually starts with the identification of an area of interest to study; a review of literature to develop further understanding of the issue to be investigated and a choice of research
However, quantitative practitioners affirm the cause or effect interplay between data and construct for validation of investigation by applying test procedures or processes (Golafshani, 2003, p. 599). As a result, with regard to validity, researchers conclude that, it is whether measurements of the mean are accurate or they are measuring the intended features. Accuracy of the mean helps in relating the cause-and-effect relationship present in internal validity. The above definition is associated with quantitative research methodology. It summarizes that validity to be the extent in which instruments measure the exact thing it purports to measure.
Validity A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
Quantitative and Qualitative Research aims at establishing new information. It is a systematic approach of collecting and interpreting information aimed at improving the knowledge base (Suanders et al: 2009, p 5). Research strategy implies a broad orientation as to how to conduct any research. According to Creswell 2004(cited in Duffy & Chenail: 2008), research could be classified into quantitative research and qualitative research. At its simplest form, the former transforms human encounters into numbers while the latter transforms such experiences into words.
The paper will further discuss the tools that are used for each approach. Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches “Quantitative research is defined as research involving the use of structured questions in which the response options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents are involved.” (Burns & Bush, 2006). Quantitative research is associated with the more traditional industry research. The purpose of quantitative research is very clear and well defined. With this type of research, manager and researchers are on one accord and have agreed upon specific information that will be needed for the research that is numerical in nature.
The objectives of this essay are to discuss key elements of qualitative and quantitative research designs, including the distinction between them. The distinction between these two research designs will also be compared with scientific and non-scientific approaches. Empirical examples illustrating the usefulness of the two designs are also given. This essay will focus on the key characteristics on aspects of data being used and its collection techniques, how it’s used and analysed as discussed by Popper (1989), Ragin (2000), Flyvbjerg (20010, Janesick (2000), De Vaus (2001), Denzin (2000) and Greenstein, Roberts and Sitas (2003). Discussion Although the key elements of these two types of research design are essentially identical, there are some notable differences in terms of how data is collected and analysed.
If in a research the emphasis of data collection is on the quality rather than the quantity, it is qualitative. However, when the research is of “quantitative orientation”, data collection focuses on some form of factual relationship. Qualitative research Using humanistic approach, this is a way of applying subjective component of the search for knowledge (Speziale & Carpenter 2007). With qualitative method, the researcher collects data in the form of words through which people normally explore meaning. This approach acquires knowledge from the perspective of the subject, not about the researcher perspective.
Research philosophy, refers to the development of knowledge adopted by the researchers in their research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). In other words, it is the theory that used to direct the researcher for conducting the procedure of research design, research strategy, questionnaire design and sampling (Malhotra, 2009). It is very important to have a clear understanding of the research philosophy so that we could examine the assumptions about the way we view the world, which are contained in the research philosophy we choose, knowing that whether they are appropriate or not (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009), three major ways of thinking about research philosophy are examined: ontology, epistemology and axiology. Each of them carries significant differences which will have an impact on the way we consider the research procedures.
A scholarly exploration involves the employment of a research approach. In the qualitative side of the research method spectrum, there exists a multitude of approaches (Willig, 2008). From this pool of choices, I decided that for my research project, I will employ Jonathan Smith’s Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (abbreviated as IPA). As an approach, IPA aims to produce an understanding of the sensemaking involved in people’s lived experiences (Birkbeck University of London, 2015; Smith & Osborn, 2008). Through the employment of IPA as the research approach, I expect that a thorough understanding of the defeminization phenomenon will be achieved.