The Resistance Against The Resistance Antibiotic resistance is when certain antibiotics lose their ability to render harmful pathogens inactive. When bacteria become resistant to antibiotics they will continue to grow and multiply without the antibiotics having any effect on them. Bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics are called superbugs because they are very hard to be destroyed within the body. Antibiotic resistance can be caused by many things. The most common way in which bacterium build up a defence to antibiotics is by mutation.
Multidrug resistant strains such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Plasmodium pose unique problems in the health field and caregivers must treat the infected patients without effective antimicrobials. Through intensive research, studies have shown that cells are able to genetically acquire resistance in two ways: through mutations of chromosomal genes and by acquiring resistance genes or chromosomal pieces of DNA called plasmids in a process called horizontal gene transfer. Literature reports, “Bacteria can carry genes that allow them to survive exposure to the antibiotic we currently have. This means that infections caused by these bacteria are harder to treat, although they are not more severe or infectious. What is concerning is that the gene that carries they antibiotic resistance can be passed between bacteria, allowing for the creation of bacteria that carry resistance to many antibiotics, a superbug”.
Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of the misuse of antibiotics that give pathogenic bacteria the ability to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. Resistance occurs when bacteria change in such a way that they survive exposure to antibiotics. Resistance may not be confined to a single antibiotic, but may affect multiple antimicrobial classes. Antibiotic resistance is a major problem and everyone needs to work together to combat it - from medical practitioners to patients. To get a clear insight of how pathogenic bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, one has to understand first how antibiotics work.
When people refer to pathogens, they are talking about bacteria that cause disease. The toxins actually excreted... ... middle of paper ... ...on of an antibody for immediate effects to cure serious diseases. A vaccine is a way to acquire artificial active immunity. It is usually dead pathogens or weakened pathogens. This dosage would not get you ill be just enough for you body to have reactions and make their own antibodies.
Microorganisms that can produce genes to combat antibiotics survive and reproduce, and those that cannot die, leaving only the resistant bacteria. Resistance is very versatile and can come in many forms, including preventing the entry of the antibiotic, exporting the antibiotic, or producing enzymes that can degrade the antibiotic. Resistance also includes the ability to modify the antibiotic target, thereby rendering it useless. An example of the inactivation of antimicrobial drugs can be seen in the resistance of bacteria with a beta lactam ring structure; these bacteria have developed enzymes such as beta-lactamases that degrade and inactivate antibiotics targeting their ring structure. Some evidence exists supporting the claim that antimicrobial substances exist naturally in the environment, contributing to resistance; however, there is more evidence supporting the claim that overuse of drugs, agriculture, and many other human uses are feeding resistance.
The antibiotic chosen for treatment is based on the severity of the symptoms, the microorganism causing the infection, and lastly the susceptibility of the organism to be antibiotic resistant. Penicillin is a powerful antibiotic that targets cells that are sensitive to Penicillin G killing the organism. It’s given for endocarditis because of its effectiveness to interfere with cell wall synthetization, the cell can no longer divide and eventually the cell wall will burst from weakness. Another drug that is a part of the penicillin group is known as Nafcillin is also used to fight against bacteria. For patient whom have an allergy to penicillin drugs Penicillin G and Naficillin are not used.
Instead, these infections are caused by viruses which, unlike bacteria, are unaffected by antibiotics. Incorrect diagnosis can also lead patients to using unnecessary antibiotics, which can sometimes be even more dangerous than otherwise left untreated. Besides the fact that antibiotics kill off beneficial bacteria in the intestines, misuse of antibiotics provides an opportunity ... ... middle of paper ... ... antibiotic resistance has quickly become an increasing concern in recent times due to the growing use of antibiotics. To combat this problem, we propose that healthy intestinal floras be maintained after antibiotic resistance using fecal bacteriotherapy, and that processes of lateral gene transfer be disrupted before antibiotic resistance through the use of copper surfaces and after antibiotic resistance through synthesized CSPs. Continuing research in these solutions as well as implementing these strategies into mainstream medicine will certainly reduce the frequency of antibiotic resistance along with incidences of serious disease outbreaks in hospitals.
Antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon in which microorganisms undergo a genetic mutation that allows them to withstand the effects of antibiotic agents designed to kill them or make them incapable of reproduction. To understand antibiotic resistance, it is important to understand what antibiotics are and the mechanisms behind these drugs that affect diseases. Antibiotics are chemical agents that specifically target certain bacterial strains and disable the bacteria by preventing their reproduction and growth. Before or right when symptoms start occurring in a body following an infection, usually the white blood cells of the human body can cope with the infection. But when it gets past the power of WBCs, antibiotics are prescribed to prevent permanent damage to the body, permanent internal damage, sepsis or even death.
Bacterial resistance is the result of evolutionary responses. One cause of resistance is through mutation. In some instances, proteins used to build the cell are altered to bind penicillin poorly or not at all. A second type of resistance occurs when the bacteria preemptively breaks down penicillin into harmless by-products before they have the chance to bind with the cell wall. A greater cause for concern is the fact that "bacteria may reproduce with different bacterial species passing on resistance" to bacteria that did not previously possess the ability to resist any drugs.3 Humans are the predominant cause for drug resistance.
NDM-1 itself is classified as an enzyme that contains the blaNDM-1 gene. It is produced by gram-negative bacteria, specifically escherichia coli (E. coli), klebsiella pneumoniae, and enterobacter cloacae. Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria acquired from hospitals that have virtually no antidote because they have mutated in response to antibiotic treatments. Their mutations have made them nearly immune to common prescriptions and are therefore very difficult to treat. Such bacteria have the potential to become “superbugs.” The bacteria that produce NDM-1 have mutated to resist both aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones; these are common antidotes that serve as antibiotics.