The Importance Of Antibiotic Resistance

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Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of an antibiotic that would have originally affected the microorganism. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is one of the most pressing world health concerns of the 21st century. In order to combat this spread, the phenomenon must first be understood. Many studies have delved into understanding the emergence of antibiotic resistance, most of which reached the conclusion of Darwinian selection being the reason for the resistance. One of the understood contributions of antibiotic resistance are the toxin-antitoxin systems, which maintain multi-resistant plasmids. In order to combat resistance, researchers have studied cell wall hydrolases, and using them…show more content…
Microorganisms that can produce genes to combat antibiotics survive and reproduce, and those that cannot die, leaving only the resistant bacteria. Resistance is very versatile and can come in many forms, including preventing the entry of the antibiotic, exporting the antibiotic, or producing enzymes that can degrade the antibiotic. Resistance also includes the ability to modify the antibiotic target, thereby rendering it useless. An example of the inactivation of antimicrobial drugs can be seen in the resistance of bacteria with a beta lactam ring structure; these bacteria have developed enzymes such as beta-lactamases that degrade and inactivate antibiotics targeting their ring structure. Some evidence exists supporting the claim that antimicrobial substances exist naturally in the environment, contributing to resistance; however, there is more evidence supporting the claim that overuse of drugs, agriculture, and many other human uses are feeding resistance. Hence, in order to prevent antibiotic resistance, the unnecessary use and the overuse of antibiotics should be limited (Holmes et al.…show more content…
Synergy between cell wall hydrolases and antibiotics is one of the ways being looked into further by researchers. Cell wall hydrolases are enzymes that build, remodel, and degrade peptidoglycan. They play several roles in bacterial development, including cell wall metabolism, bacteriolysis, niche expansion, and eukaryotic innate immune defenses against infections. Recently, purified cell wall hydrolases have been shown to be highly effective antimicrobial agents. They exhibit quick and specific bacteriolysis, synergy with other antimicrobial agents, and anti-biofilm activity. The synergistic ability of antimicrobial cell wall hydrolases is perhaps the most useful aspect, for they can combine various strengths in order to combat infective agents and biofilm development (Wittekind et al. 18-24). Another approach to combatting antibiotic resistance is targeting the cell membrane adaptation. One of the major problems associated with antibiotic resistance is the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria. The problem arises not only with the ability of the bacteria to resist the effects of many drugs, but also with the fact that many of the available treatments for multidrug-resistant bacteria harmfully affects the human microbiota. The LiaFSR system may be the answer to the problem of MDR bacteria. This system plays a major role in in the responses against
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