Hats off to bacteria! This article summarizes that bacteria are good for our body and help us function a lot better. Bacteria live in our guts, in our mouths, and on our skin. Overuse of antibiotics has disturbed the bacterial ecosystem, possibly so much that it is irreversible. In 1999 Lawrence Brandt a professor of medicine and surgery at the Albert Einstein College of medicine had success when trying to help a patient combat diarrhea induced by clostridium difficile. A patient developed diarrhea after taking a course of antibiotics for sinusitis; nothing could shake her C.difficile infection. Brandt reasoned the initial antibiotic treatment had killed gut bacteria that promote digestive health; not knowing which strain to replace, he transplanted stool form her husband. That night she reported marked improvement- for the first time in six months. This procedure has helped patients, but hopefully in the future doctors will be able to administer the particular strain of bacteria that is needed. 99% of the bacteria we harbor are resistant to culture in the lab. It was this impossible to study bacteria until the last decade or so, when DNA sequencing techniques allowed researchers to obtain gene sequences from as little as one bacterial cell. With this researchers found that bacteria cells in our bodies outnumber our human cells. Bacterial exposure throughout our lifetime is needed for our wellbeing, thinking, and functioning, contributing to conditions such as diabetes, obesity, allergies, asthma, and atherosclerosis, as well as to anxiety and mood and cognition disorders. These conditions have become more prominent because of our obsession with sanitation has eliminated the exposure to bacteria humans used to routinely get throu...
There is research being done with Crohn’s that is testing whether or not bone marrow transplants would be effective in treating the disease. The use of immune system suppressors is also being questioned and researched and may be more problematic than they are a solution.
Often patients encompassing with Clostridium difficile have no symptoms or they may express symptoms of mild diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and inflammation of the colon causing pain (Mitchell, 2014). Clostridium difficile is a bacterial infection of the intestine and it may occur in patients who are immunocompromised or taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Walter (2014) explains that the most important risk factor for CDI continues to be recent administration of antibiotics. The infection occurs from depression of the normal flora of the bowel through the administration of antibiotics. The depression of the normal flora increases the number of C. difficile bacteria within the intestines. The overgrowth of C. difficile causes diarrhea. Abdominal cramps, fever, and leukocytosis are noted in most patients. Symptoms usually begin 4 to 10 days after the initiation of antibiotic therapy (Elsevier,
Currently, there are extensive studies that confirm the actual benefits of probiotics in helping reduce the intensity of the symptoms that are associated with diarrhea. Case in point, when people take antibiotics, they are non-selective in attacking both beneficial and harmful bacteria.
Nurses should take a leading role in reducing the impact of disease on patients and influence the expansion of evidence based infection prevention practice. Antimicrobial resistance prevention must remain a huge priority. In times of opposing priorities concerning patient safety, progress has been made in undertaking these bacteria’s and infections. The outlook of a near future without helpful antibiotics should not be dismissed, and all us in positions of influence should encourage and educate the conscientious use of antimicrobials seriously and do what we can to stop the situation from spreading.
Clostridium difficile: This infection is most common in people who are already on antibiotics. Certain bacteria can live normally in the bowel in just the right numbers to keep it healthy.
A common hospital acquired condition that nurses see now days is clostridium difficile. This bacterium usually invades patients who have been on long-term antibiotics that have killed off bacteria that protect them from infection. C. diff is passed from host to host by both direct and indirect contact making it readily moved from patient to patient in hospital settings (Mayo, 2013, 1). Nurses can use the QSEN competencies and KSAs to help treat and prevent hospital acquired conditions such as C.diff.
In conclusion E. faecalis can cause severe life-threating disease in humans and mammals especially in our health care environments. They have increased in antibiotic resistance and are also becoming very challenging for physicians to treat. Recently stronger and more specific antibiotics are being newly developed.
Clostridium difficile, formally named Bacillus difficilis, due to how difficult it was to isolate and cultivate was first isolated from newborn infants in 1935. (Hall and O’Toole, 1935). It was not until 1970, that a relationship was formed between C. difficile and humans with colitis (Ehrich et al., 1984). In 1984, was the first time C. difficile was identified in mature horses, located in the Potomac River area, with diarrhea. Cases of C. difficile colitis in horses treated with antimicrobials increased in 1993. Since then, many studies have looked at horses with diarrhea in relations with the presence of C. difficile (Baverud et al., 1997).
Infection control has long been an issue in nursing dating back to the Crimean War and Florence Nightingale’s efforts to promote sanitary practices. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection is often easily contracted from one person to another, even with the use of proper isolation precautions and hand hygiene. Antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, such as resistant C. difficile leads to increased health care costs, hospitalizations, and the potential spread of nosocomial Clostridium difficile to other patients and nurses alike. Despite nurses’ efforts reduce the spread of infection, outbreaks in nursing facilities and recurrent C. difficile infections are common. Persistent C. difficile infections are challenging to treat and are
Gut microbiota transplantation has been used to modify normal flora. First reported its use as therapy in1958 for fulminant enterocolitis.
Outcome measurements or outcome evaluations are one of the most important activities of any program implementation process. Rossi, Peter, Lipsey, and Freeman (2004) stated that program evaluation is “the systematic application of social research procedures for assessing the conceptualization, design, implementation, and utility of health or social interventions (p.8). The concept or proposition of fecal microbiota (FMT) transplantation is to offer an alternate for managing and treating C. difficile. Outcome measurement through monitoring and evaluation will assist in establishing the effectiveness and success of the FMT program. The rationale for collecting measurement data include:
Among hospitalized patients around the world, Clostridium difficile is the primary source of infectious diarrhea. Previously, continuously unbalanced intestinal microbiota, usually due to antimicrobials, was deemed a precondition of developing the infection. However, recently, there have been alterations in the biology from virtually infecting the elderly population exclusively, wherein the microbiota in their guts have been interrupted by antimicrobials, to currently infecting individuals within of all age groups displaying no recent antimicrobial use. Furthermore, recent reports have confirmed critical occurrences among groups previously assumed to be of minimal risk—pregnant women, children, and individuals with no previous exposure to antimicrobials, for instance. Unfortunately, this Gram-positive, toxin-producing anaerobic bacterium is estimated to cost US critical care facilities $800 million per year at present, suggesting the need for effective measures to eliminate this nosocomial infection (Yakob, Riley, Paterson, & Clements, 2013).
The role of intestinal fauna was not well understood before this. Recent microbial research has shown that bacteriotherapy can also be used for treatment. “Colonic infusion of donor human intestinal flora can reverse ulcerated colitis in select patients”.