Clostridium Difficile

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Among hospitalized patients around the world, Clostridium difficile is the primary source of infectious diarrhea. Previously, continuously unbalanced intestinal microbiota, usually due to antimicrobials, was deemed a precondition of developing the infection. However, recently, there have been alterations in the biology from virtually infecting the elderly population exclusively, wherein the microbiota in their guts have been interrupted by antimicrobials, to currently infecting individuals within of all age groups displaying no recent antimicrobial use. Furthermore, recent reports have confirmed critical occurrences among groups previously assumed to be of minimal risk—pregnant women, children, and individuals with no previous exposure to antimicrobials, for instance. Unfortunately, this Gram-positive, toxin-producing anaerobic bacterium is estimated to cost US critical care facilities $800 million per year at present, suggesting the need for effective measures to eliminate this nosocomial infection (Yakob, Riley, Paterson, & Clements, 2013).
C. difficile infection (CDI) is a dangerous healthcare-associated infection as well as a growing burden, especially with the appearance of more potent strains in the early 2000s. Clostridium difficile was initially identified as possessing the ability to initiate pseudomembranous colitis in the late 1970s. Asymptomatic colonization in healthy adults has been detected in only 3% of individuals, whereas the pervasiveness of such colonization among patients in long-term-care facilities is approximately 50%. People colonized with C. difficile act as a reservoir of contamination by infecting the environment with C. difficile spores, consequently leading to an increase of the pathogen on the hand...

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