Clostridium Difficile

analytical Essay
2781 words
2781 words

Among hospitalized patients around the world, Clostridium difficile is the primary source of infectious diarrhea. Previously, continuously unbalanced intestinal microbiota, usually due to antimicrobials, was deemed a precondition of developing the infection. However, recently, there have been alterations in the biology from virtually infecting the elderly population exclusively, wherein the microbiota in their guts have been interrupted by antimicrobials, to currently infecting individuals within of all age groups displaying no recent antimicrobial use. Furthermore, recent reports have confirmed critical occurrences among groups previously assumed to be of minimal risk—pregnant women, children, and individuals with no previous exposure to antimicrobials, for instance. Unfortunately, this Gram-positive, toxin-producing anaerobic bacterium is estimated to cost US critical care facilities $800 million per year at present, suggesting the need for effective measures to eliminate this nosocomial infection (Yakob, Riley, Paterson, & Clements, 2013).
C. difficile infection (CDI) is a dangerous healthcare-associated infection as well as a growing burden, especially with the appearance of more potent strains in the early 2000s. Clostridium difficile was initially identified as possessing the ability to initiate pseudomembranous colitis in the late 1970s. Asymptomatic colonization in healthy adults has been detected in only 3% of individuals, whereas the pervasiveness of such colonization among patients in long-term-care facilities is approximately 50%. People colonized with C. difficile act as a reservoir of contamination by infecting the environment with C. difficile spores, consequently leading to an increase of the pathogen on the hand...

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...idemiology, 1137-1139. Retrieved from Clorox Professional:
Pai, S., Aliyu, S. H., Enoch, D. A., & Karas, J. A. (2012). Five Years Experience of Clostridium difficile Infection in Children at UK Tertiary Hospital: Proposed Criteria for Diagnosis and Management. PLoS ONE, 1-6.
Tamma, P. D., & Sandora, T. J. (2012). Clostridium difficile in children: current state and unaswered questions. Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 230-243.
Yakob, L., Riley, T. V., Paterson, D. L., & Clements, A. (2013). Clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: an epidemiological model. BMC Infectious Diseases, 376.
Zilberberg, M. D., Tillotson, G. S., & McDonald, L. C. (2010). Clostridium difficile Infections among Hospitalized Children, United States, 1997-2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 604-609.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that clostridium difficile is the primary source of infectious diarrhea among hospitalized patients around the world.
  • Explains that c. difficile infection (cdi) is a dangerous healthcare-associated infection and growing burden with the appearance of more potent strains in the early 2000s.
  • Analyzes how a new strain of c. difficile, titled "north american pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1" (nap1), is partially responsible for this elevated incidence and increased acuteness of illness.
  • Explains that c. difficile spores can exist in the environment for months or years and can be found on various surfaces within healthcare facilities.
  • Explains that the biological characteristics of c. difficile infection remain indeterminate in the pediatric population.
  • Explains that c. difficile is becoming more and more recognizable as a substantial co-morbid factor in well-known pediatric inpatient populations.
  • Opines that prior antimicrobial use is the most essential risk factor for c. difficile infection. diminishing antibiotic use, such as surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, is vital in lessening the risk.
  • Opines that epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of c. difficile remain unanswered, citing studies predating the appearance of the prevalent strain.
  • Explains that the rate of acquisition of c. difficile throughout hospitalization is relative to the length of stay and can be as high as 40% after 1 month. increasing rates should stimulate additional exploration and prevention measures.
  • Explains that antimicrobial stewardship has been proven effective in the prevention of nosocomial infections, but supplementary procedures must be employed to achieve optimal success.
  • Explains clorox healthcare bleach germicidal wipes, which are approved by the environmental protection agency, are an important supplement to environmental cleaning, but must be used correctly to be effective.
  • Explains that the sterilray far-uv disinfection wand is an innovative environmental disinfection tool that destroys c. difficile swiftly spores and other healthcare-associated pathogens
  • Explains that the proposed study design is a prospective multiple-crossover trial due to several advantages, including the fact that each crossover patient functions as his or her own control. case control studies are observational because no intervention or interference is attempted.
  • Explains that the main outcome (dependant variable) is the reduction of c. difficile. the main predictor variables are clorox healthcare bleach germicidal wipes and the sterilray disinfection wand device.
  • Explains that the study population would include approximately 1,500 pediatric patients in three icus. the primary outcome would be the reduction of c. difficle and is a continuous variable.
  • Explains that two observers will examine the practices of health care workers in each icu to measure compliance with disinfection practices. the observations will be disseminated uniformly over eight months.
  • Concludes that c. difficile contaminates medical equipment and devices through fecal shedding or by way of contaminated hands of patients or healthcare professionals.
  • Recommends clorox healthcare bleach germicidal wipes and sterilray disinfection wands to eliminate the devastating burden of c. difficile infection.
  • Cites carrico, r. m., archibald, l. k. bryant, e. garcia, j. g. gould, c.
  • Describes the clinical practice guidelines for clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of america (shea) and the infectious diseases society (idsa).
  • Explains kim, smathers, prasad, leckerman, coffin, and zaoutis, epidemiological features of clostridium difficile-associated disease among inpatients at children's hospitals in the united states, 2001-2006.
  • Describes mills, chan, a.-w., wu, vail, guyatt, and altman, d.
  • Evaluates a hand-held far-ultraviolet radiation device for decontaminating clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens.
  • Describes the future research needs for prevention and treatment of clostridium difficile infection.
  • Explains orenstein, aronhalt, mcmanus, & fedraw, l. a. (2011), a targeted strategy to wipe out clostridium difficile.
  • Describes the five years experience of clostridium difficile infection in children at uk tertiary hospital.
  • Analyzes tamma, p. d., and sandora t. j. (2012). clostridium difficile in children: current state and unaswered questions.
  • Explains that clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: an epidemiological model.
  • Describes zilberberg, tillotson, and mcdonald's findings on clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized children.
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