Among hospitalized patients around the world, Clostridium difficile is the primary source of infectious diarrhea. Previously, continuously unbalanced intestinal microbiota, usually due to antimicrobials, was deemed a precondition of developing the infection. However, recently, there have been alterations in the biology from virtually infecting the elderly population exclusively, wherein the microbiota in their guts have been interrupted by antimicrobials, to currently infecting individuals within of all age groups displaying no recent antimicrobial use. Furthermore, recent reports have confirmed critical occurrences among groups previously assumed to be of minimal risk—pregnant women, children, and individuals with no previous exposure to antimicrobials, for instance. Unfortunately, this Gram-positive, toxin-producing anaerobic bacterium is estimated to cost US critical care facilities $800 million per year at present, suggesting the need for effective measures to eliminate this nosocomial infection (Yakob, Riley, Paterson, & Clements, 2013).
C. difficile infection (CDI) is a dangerous healthcare-associated infection as well as a growing burden, especially with the appearance of more potent strains in the early 2000s. Clostridium difficile was initially identified as possessing the ability to initiate pseudomembranous colitis in the late 1970s. Asymptomatic colonization in healthy adults has been detected in only 3% of individuals, whereas the pervasiveness of such colonization among patients in long-term-care facilities is approximately 50%. People colonized with C. difficile act as a reservoir of contamination by infecting the environment with C. difficile spores, consequently leading to an increase of the pathogen on the hand...
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Pai, S., Aliyu, S. H., Enoch, D. A., & Karas, J. A. (2012). Five Years Experience of Clostridium difficile Infection in Children at UK Tertiary Hospital: Proposed Criteria for Diagnosis and Management. PLoS ONE, 1-6.
Tamma, P. D., & Sandora, T. J. (2012). Clostridium difficile in children: current state and unaswered questions. Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases , 230-243.
Yakob, L., Riley, T. V., Paterson, D. L., & Clements, A. (2013). Clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: an epidemiological model. BMC Infectious Diseases, 376.
Zilberberg, M. D., Tillotson, G. S., & McDonald, L. C. (2010). Clostridium difficile Infections among Hospitalized Children, United States, 1997-2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 604-609.
In this essay, the author
Explains that clostridium difficile is the primary source of infectious diarrhea among hospitalized patients around the world.
Explains that c. difficile infection (cdi) is a dangerous healthcare-associated infection and growing burden with the appearance of more potent strains in the early 2000s.
Analyzes how a new strain of c. difficile, titled "north american pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1" (nap1), is partially responsible for this elevated incidence and increased acuteness of illness.
Explains that c. difficile spores can exist in the environment for months or years and can be found on various surfaces within healthcare facilities.
Explains that the biological characteristics of c. difficile infection remain indeterminate in the pediatric population.
Explains that c. difficile is becoming more and more recognizable as a substantial co-morbid factor in well-known pediatric inpatient populations.
Opines that prior antimicrobial use is the most essential risk factor for c. difficile infection. diminishing antibiotic use, such as surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, is vital in lessening the risk.
Opines that epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of c. difficile remain unanswered, citing studies predating the appearance of the prevalent strain.
Explains that the rate of acquisition of c. difficile throughout hospitalization is relative to the length of stay and can be as high as 40% after 1 month. increasing rates should stimulate additional exploration and prevention measures.
Explains that antimicrobial stewardship has been proven effective in the prevention of nosocomial infections, but supplementary procedures must be employed to achieve optimal success.
Explains clorox healthcare bleach germicidal wipes, which are approved by the environmental protection agency, are an important supplement to environmental cleaning, but must be used correctly to be effective.
Explains that the sterilray far-uv disinfection wand is an innovative environmental disinfection tool that destroys c. difficile swiftly spores and other healthcare-associated pathogens
Explains that the proposed study design is a prospective multiple-crossover trial due to several advantages, including the fact that each crossover patient functions as his or her own control. case control studies are observational because no intervention or interference is attempted.
Explains that the main outcome (dependant variable) is the reduction of c. difficile. the main predictor variables are clorox healthcare bleach germicidal wipes and the sterilray disinfection wand device.
Explains that the study population would include approximately 1,500 pediatric patients in three icus. the primary outcome would be the reduction of c. difficle and is a continuous variable.
Explains that two observers will examine the practices of health care workers in each icu to measure compliance with disinfection practices. the observations will be disseminated uniformly over eight months.
Concludes that c. difficile contaminates medical equipment and devices through fecal shedding or by way of contaminated hands of patients or healthcare professionals.
Recommends clorox healthcare bleach germicidal wipes and sterilray disinfection wands to eliminate the devastating burden of c. difficile infection.
Cites carrico, r. m., archibald, l. k. bryant, e. garcia, j. g. gould, c.
Describes the clinical practice guidelines for clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of america (shea) and the infectious diseases society (idsa).
Explains kim, smathers, prasad, leckerman, coffin, and zaoutis, epidemiological features of clostridium difficile-associated disease among inpatients at children's hospitals in the united states, 2001-2006.
Describes mills, chan, a.-w., wu, vail, guyatt, and altman, d.
Evaluates a hand-held far-ultraviolet radiation device for decontaminating clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens.
Describes the future research needs for prevention and treatment of clostridium difficile infection.
Explains orenstein, aronhalt, mcmanus, & fedraw, l. a. (2011), a targeted strategy to wipe out clostridium difficile.
Describes the five years experience of clostridium difficile infection in children at uk tertiary hospital.
Analyzes tamma, p. d., and sandora t. j. (2012). clostridium difficile in children: current state and unaswered questions.
Explains that clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: an epidemiological model.
Describes zilberberg, tillotson, and mcdonald's findings on clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized children.
Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile) is a bacteria-related gastrointestinal infection that is caused (etiology) by the use of antibiotics therapy or exposure to the C. difficile spores (Swartz, 2013). According to published reports compiled by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), National Safety Network (NHSN), and the Center for Disease Control Prevention (CDC), the rate of CDI have a major financial impact (costs associated with medical management of CDI) on health care institution across the United States. CDI is major concern for hospital administrators and patients at Sharp Grossmont Hospital (SGH) and other in hospitals within the Sharp Healthcare Network (SHN). According to data released by CPDH and the CDC, from January to December 2012 three hospitals within the (SHN) reported 136 new cases of CDI. Statistical data also show that 20,000 to 34,000 patients were admitted or readmitted to the hospitals for recurrent complications related to CDI such as electrolyte imbalance, nutrition deficits, and systemic bacteremia (CDPH, 2013).
In this essay, the author
Explains that clostridium difficile (c. difficile) is a bacteria-related gastrointestinal infection caused by the use of antibiotics therapy or exposure to the spores.
Explains that fecal microbiotic transplantation (fmt) is a quick and inexpensive treatment option for recurrent cdi.
Explains that health care organizations receive reimbursement from third party payers and from the centers for medicare and medicaid services (cms) for performing fmt procedures.
Explains the fmt implementation plan, which involves a multi-step, interdisciplinary collaboration process.
Explains the importance of community and patient education programs to increase awareness and severity of cdi and minimize fear and hesitancy for participation in the fmt program.
Explains how the fmt program can be achieved through an interdisciplinary, computerized interactive data tracking system.
Explains that sharp grossmont hospital has numerous interdisciplinary and professional resources to implement the fmt program.
Explains grossmont hospital foundation is a philanthropic, not-for-profit organization that provides health education, clinical research, patient care services, and funds projects and ventures associated with sgh and sharp’s hospice service.
Describes kurt lewin's force field analysis and model of change as a series of forces pulling in different directions within the organization.
Explains unfreezing occurs when organizational leadership and managers communicate a need for change in current policies, procedures, and practices.
Explains that refreezing involves assessing, monitoring, and evaluating the implemented change. organizational goals are achieved through a change in daily operation and work design processes.
Explains that fmt has evidence-based benefits, such as improved patient health outcomes, and increased incidences of cdi.
Explains that fecal microbiota transplantation relapsing clostridium difficile infection in 26 patients: methodology and results.
Explains swartz, t., and borkowski, n. (2005). organizational behavior in health care.
Infection control has long been an issue in nursing dating back to the Crimean War and Florence Nightingale’s efforts to promote sanitary practices. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection is often easily contracted from one person to another, even with the use of proper isolation precautions and hand hygiene. Antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, such as resistant C. difficile leads to increased health care costs, hospitalizations, and the potential spread of nosocomial Clostridium difficile to other patients and nurses alike. Despite nurses’ efforts reduce the spread of infection, outbreaks in nursing facilities and recurrent C. difficile infections are common. Persistent C. difficile infections are challenging to treat and are
In this essay, the author
Explains that infection control has been an issue in nursing since the crimean war and florence nightingale’s efforts to promote sanitary practices.
According to the article The mechanism and efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea there is a great concern about increasing incidence of C. difficile infection due to use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Clindamycin, third generation of cephalosporins and flouroquinolones are considered high risk antibiotics. It is believed that normal gastrointestinal flora has potential effect in inhibition C.difficile growth and toxin A,B release which offen associated with sever diarrhea resulting in patient’s mortality and other comorbidities. After first episode, there is a high chance for relapses due to reduction serum IgG antibodies to toxin A and colonic IgA secretion cells.
In this essay, the author
Explains the mechanism and efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. clindamycin, third generation of cephalosporins, and flouroquinolones are considered high risk antibiotics.
Explains that metronidazole and vancomycin are indicated for treatment of c.difficile, and two studies in animal model suggest that use of culture-specific probiotics can up-regulate anti-toxin a secretary iga.
Concludes that probiotics should not be used for primary and secondary prophylaxis for reducing rate of c. difficile as standardized health-care practice due to lack of sufficient evidence.
Clostridium difficile, formally named Bacillus difficilis, due to how difficult it was to isolate and cultivate was first isolated from newborn infants in 1935. (Hall and O’Toole, 1935). It was not until 1970, that a relationship was formed between C. difficile and humans with colitis (Ehrich et al., 1984). In 1984, was the first time C. difficile was identified in mature horses, located in the Potomac River area, with diarrhea. Cases of C. difficile colitis in horses treated with antimicrobials increased in 1993. Since then, many studies have looked at horses with diarrhea in relations with the presence of C. difficile (Baverud et al., 1997).
In this essay, the author
Explains that c. difficile is one of the top three most common bacteria linked to diarrhea.
Explains that identifying and culturing c. difficile is difficult because the toxin type must also be identified.
Explains that clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile, rod bacteria associated with colitis and diarrhea, especially in horses.
Explains that escherichia coli is the most prevalent infecting organism in the family of gram-negative bacteria known as enterobacteriaceae.
Clostridium difficile: This infection is most common in people who are already on antibiotics. Certain bacteria can live normally in the bowel in just the right numbers to keep it healthy.
In this essay, the author
Explains that infection is the establishment of a pathogen in its host after invasion, and this germ or parasitic organism is referred to as an infective organism.
Explains that bacteria, which is the major factor of causes of infection, is microscopic in nature.
Explains that bacteria are the most common cause of infections in people with terminal diseases such as cancer.
Explains that listeria monocytogenes is caused by contaminated food. it is rare, but can be serious if caught by pregnant women, unborn or newborn babies, elderly people, or those with a weak immune system.
Explains that viruses can only grow and reproduce inside other living cells called their host cell. common cold viruses occur often in healthy people, but can cause serious infections, such as pneumonia, in people with weak immune systems.
Explains that fungi can survive in damp, warm places, but if a fungal infection occurs when your immune system is weak, it can cause problems.
Opines that the cost of hand hygiene solutions in hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes is immeasurable. staff's usage and implementation of agency policy in reducing infections in facilities will lead to the provision of materals.
Concludes that ppe is the main preventive measure while have contact with the patent, before care, during the operation and post-surgery. sterile gloves and adhesive drapes are almost always used in the operating theater.
Explains colonization-infection present on surface of body-organism propagating at a rate sufficient to maintain its numbers without producing identifiable evidence of any reaction in host.
Explains that streptococcus, pseudomonas, clostridium difficile, etc., cause tonsillitis and skin infections.
Explains protozoa are microscopic living things that thrive on moisture and often spread through water. amoebiasis is transmitted through contact with infected feces.
Explains that preoperative skin antisepsis removes soil and transient organisms from the skin.
Enterococci, found naturally as part of the digestive tract flora in humans and animals, have evolved into major opportunistic pathogens causing nosocomial infections including bacteremia in neutropenic patients, endocarditis and device infections (Arias & Murray, 2012). In the USA, there has been a rapid increase in Enterococcus faecium infections associated with hospital outbreaks since the 1980s, often attributed to the emergence of resistance to ampicillin, the increased use of advanced generation cephalosporins and vancomycin and the subsequent development of resistance to vancomycin (Murray, 2000, Somarajan & Murray, 2013). Also, a recent CDC survey reported that about 38% of hospital-associated enterococcal isolates identified to the species level were E. faecium (Hidron, et al., 2008). Over the last two decades, i...
In this essay, the author
Explains that enterococcus faecium, a major cause of nosocomial infections, is often isolated from conditions where biofilm is considered important in the establishment of infections.
Explains that enterococci have evolved into opportunistic pathogens causing nosocomial infections, including bacteremia in neutropenic patients, endocarditis and device infections.
Explains that e. faecium's clinical impact may be enhanced by biofilm formation, which makes it more difficult to treat with antibiotics.
Explains that the present study assessed the ability of e. faecium isolates from diverse sources to form biofilm.
Explains how biofilm formation was quantitated by measuring od570 of crystal violet stained wells. each strain was assessed on at least two occasions.
Explains that the prevalence of various genes was evaluated using dna colony hybridizations, as described previously. genomic dna probes were prepared by pcr amplification of intragenic regions of diverse genes using specific primers.
Analyzes the association between biofilm formation and the distribution of the 16 genes in e. faecium strains belonging to different clinical or non-clinical subgroups using fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression.
Analyzes the biofilm formation capacity of e. faecium isolates from diverse sources.
Analyzes whether the presence of putative virulence genes was associated with the amount of biofilm formation, and finds that the empfm operon showed a significant association, as shown by the higher median od570 values for e. faecium isolates.
Concludes that the presence of virulence traits is not always associated with increased biofilm formation capacity.
Analyzes the association between the presence of putative virulence determinants and the occurrence of biofilm formation among isolates of different origin.
Analyzes whether there was an association between gene distribution and the occurrence of biofilm formation in e. faecium isolates.
Concludes that biofilm formation occurs at a higher frequency and amount in clinical e. faecium isolates compared to healthy volunteers.
Weston, Debbie. Infection Prevention and Control: Theory and Clinical Practice for Healthcare Professionals. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print.
In this essay, the author
Explains that hospital/healthcare associated infections (hais) were first identified as a serious threat to patient safety in the 1930s. the british medical council appointed infection officers to regulate and control causes of infection.
Defines healthcare associated infections as infections that patients acquire during the course of receiving health care treatment for other conditions.
Explains that an adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent or its toxin(s) results in a reaction.
Opines that the infection must be recognized as being purely related to the hospital environment.
Explains that iatrogenic, organizational, or patient-related hais are related to age, illness, immune status, length of hospital stay, and environmental factors.
Concludes that the drastic increase of hospital-based infections cannot be blamed on any one element. there are three main reasons for the increase in hais in the us.
Explains that preventative measures such as hand hygiene, pre-surgical vaccinations, and the implementation of certain materials in a patient setting have been proven to cut hais by as much as 60%.
Explains that the primary significance of hais is their cost. many interventions are disregarded by hospitals due to rearranging an old system or misinformation.
Explains that the three determinants of hospital reform efforts are the federal government, the state, and the hospital itself.
Opines that obamacare will require that hai statistics be publicly available on the internet, creating greater incentive for hospitals to protect their public reputation.
Concludes that healthcare associated infections are one of the leading causes of in-hospital preventable death and over-abundant healthcare spending in us hospitals.
Cites the centers for disease control and prevention's "control of health-care--associated infections, 1961–2011".
Cites the national healthcare safety network annual summary of data reported to the centers for disease control and prevention.
Title - Knowledge, attitude and practice of paediatric nurses on infection control INTRODUCTION Infection control is an essential part of nursing care delivery in each setting to reduce risks for morbidity and mortality in patients and care givers at all levels. Basic principles of infection prevention are simple and include personal hygiene and hand washing. More extensive infection risk reduction strategies are necessary for the management of indwelling devices such as enteral feeding systems, central venous catheters, intravenous cannula, devices and facilities for assisted ventilation and for surgical procedures that involve permanently implanted foreign bodies such as total joints and pacemakers. Infection risk reduction in patients across entire care, nurses must be vital role in infection control. It is essential to check the safety of patients as well as healthcare personnel and those who visit the health care environment.
In this essay, the author
Explains that infection control is an essential part of nursing care delivery to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients and care givers at all levels.
Describes the standard precautions for hand washing, personal protective equipment, correct and safe disposal of sharps, and disposal and management of infectious waste. nurses are likely to implement all functions necessary for the total care of patients.
Explains that nurses have an essential role to perform in the prevention efforts and they are an important population to study their level of knowledge and practice regarding infection control measures.
Explains that measures employed to increase the survival rate in small babies have added greatly to risks of infections, such as intravenous infusion, assisted respiration, parental nutrition, excessive use of broad spectrum antibiotics and extensive surgical maneuvers on babies with congenital malformations.
Explains the purpose of the study, which is to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices towards infection control measures among paediatric nurses.
The children are frequently taken to various clinics by anxious parents, however the doctors usually try to treat them with antibiotics, which not only kill the malicious bacteria but also destroy the good bacteria also like Lactobacillus acidophilus.
In this essay, the author
Explains that alcohol is prepared through fermentation process using yeasts, and can yeild candida infections and allergies as an outcome.
Explains that candida is triggered more by sweetened foodstuffs and fermented foods like breads, cheese, flavored youghurt, non-branded, low-cost commercially produced vinegars.
Explains that the candida crusher program is highly recommended for those who react to even less amount of alcohol.
Explains that spores and molds proliferate on left-over food items during night, so it is better to stay away from them in order to enjoy safe candida diet.
Explains that antibodies are found in the mucosa and digestive system, and with its rise and fall, helps to ascertain the immunity power of allergic reaction.
Opines that most child specialist doctors don't have enough knowledge and expertise to diagnose child intestinal dybiosis to treat the illness properly.
Explains that candida affected children suffer from numerous allergic disorders that may have impact on many other areas as well.
Opines that once candida is fully treated in children, their behaviour or low level of learning capacity shows noticeable improvement while curing yeast infection, which gives relief to their parents.
Explains that children with behavioural problems are often treated with antibiotics in cases like ear infections, a throat problem, cough and cold.
Explains that children are often taken to various clinics by anxious parents, but the doctors try to treat them with antibiotics, which kill the malicious bacteria and destroy the good bacteria.
Explains that yeasts aren't vulnerable to the effects of antibiotics, so they stay in the body and prosper, whereas antibiotic doses result in antibiotic resistant residual bacteria.
Explains that sweet foods are favourites of children, which include ice-cream and all other sugary foods. children are more exposed to foods with high sugar content than any time in the past.
This article overall purpose is to inform the importance of knowledge and practice of effective hand hygiene and hand care to prevent or reduce cross-contamination from healthcare personnel to patients (HCP). As the article’s author expressed at the introduction “ Healthcare-acquired infections are a major source of illness and death in hospitalized patients, and approximately 20%-40% of these infections are a result of cross-infection via the hands of healthcare personnel” (Eve Cuny 1)
In this essay, the author
Explains the purpose of the article, which is to inform the importance of knowledge and practice of effective hand hygiene and hand care to prevent or reduce cross-contamination from healthcare personnel to patients.
Explains that healthcare-acquired infections are by history one of the main causes of death in hospital and healthcare settings.
Explains the importance of hand hygiene, starting from the definition and contrast of transient and resident flora.
Cites semmelweis’ theory in 1847, where physicians and medical students washed and disinfected their hands with a chlorinated lime solution.
Describes cdc guidelines for hand washing techniques before surgical and routine procedures to emphasize the prevention of cross-contamination for infection control.
Advises about the need to control the use of soaps and detergents to avoid irritant contact dermatitis as one of the effects of constant hand washing and disinfection.
Explains that hand care with the use of emollients to moisturize and avoid skin irritation is important as long as are compatible with medical products and are nonallergenic.
Concludes that this article is useful to understand that cross-contaminations can be controlled by the use of effective hand hygiene.
Explains that they learned that hand washing technique and disinfection must be used before, during and after every procedure. cdc guidelines are implemented to control infection in medical and dental settings to prevent cross-contamination.
Explains that dental assistants often fail to follow directions and misunderstand the importance and type of hand washing technique to use. they will apply this article information to prevent spreading contamination in their dental work area.
Explains that practicing hand hygiene is a simple yet effective way to prevent infections. cleaning your hands can prevent the spread of germs, including those resistant to antibiotics.