Bacterial Vaginosis

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Introduction Bacterial vaginosis is known to be the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age (Hay, 2010). Bacterial vaginosis is the result of the substitution of normal vaginal lactobacilli with anaerobic bacteria Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella, Peptostreptococcus and Bacteroides spp., which will result loss of the normal vaginal acidity (Turovskiy, Sutyak Noll, & Chikindas, 2010). Bacterial vaginosis is the main trigger of vaginal discharge or malodor in women (Hainer & Gibson, 2011). Studies specify that most women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis are unaware of the infection; however, the fishy odor smell that accompanies this infection is usually a hallmark for its diagnosis (Hainer & Gibson, 2011). The fishy odor associated with bacterial vaginosis is the product of amines from anaerobic (Hainer & Gibson, 2011). The odor associated with bacterial vaginosis is more prominent when there is an increase in vaginal pH, which mostly occurs after sexual intercourse when semen is present in the vagina, as well as during menstrual cycle (Hainer & Gibson, 2011). In comparison to many other vaginal infections, bacterial vaginosis is not associated with inflammation of the vaginal mucosal and/or vulvar itch (Hainer & Gibson, 2011). Bacterial vaginosis is identified with patient with high incidence of endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease status post abortion and/or gynecological procedures (Hainer & Gibson, 2011). This vaginal infection, bacterial vaginosis, has been associated with status post and postpartum endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and during pregnancy, late fetal loss and spontaneous preterm birth (Verstraelen, Verhelst, Vaneechoutte, & Temmerman, 2010). Tho... ... middle of paper ... ... V.S., Bertini, M., & Candiani, M. (2013). Probiotics in the Prevention of Recurrences of Bacterial Vaginosis. Alternative Therapies, 20(1), 52-57 Turovskiy, Y., Sutyak Noll, K., & Chikindas, M. (2011). The aetiology of bacterial vaginosis. Journal Of Applied Microbiology, 110(5), 1105-1128. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.04977.x Verstraelen, H., Verhelst, R., Vaneechoutte, M., & Temmerman, M. (2010). The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour. BMC Infectious Diseases, 1081. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-81 Vujic, G., Knez, A.J., Stefanovic, V.D., Vrbanovic, V.K. (2012) Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 168(2013), 75-79. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.031p

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