Debts of Good Will and Interpersonal Justice
ABSTRACT: A debt of good will (utang na loob in Filipino) is incurred when a person becomes the beneficiary of significant assistance or favor given by another. Usually, the beneficiary is in acute need of the assistance given or favor granted. This provides an opportunity for the giving of help to serve as a vehicle for the expression of sympathy or concern. The debt could then be appreciated as one of good will because, by catering to another person's pressing need, the benefactor is able to express positive dispositions towards the beneficiary. It is not merely the receipt of the assistance or favor that puts the recipient in a position of indebtedness. The indebtedness is created by the benefactor's kagandahang loob (good will). An act can be considered to convey kagandahang loob only if it is done out of kusang loob (roughly, free will); and can only be considered to have been done out of kusang loob if the agent (1) is not acting under external compulsion, (2) is motivated by positive feelings (e.g. charity, love or sympathy) towards the beneficiary, and (3) is not motivated by the anticipation of reward. These conditions entail debt-of-good-will relationships where the benefactor has no right to demand reciprocity but the beneficiary has a "self-imposed" obligation to repay kagandahang loob with kagandahang loob. Debts of good will are about some forms of justice. But we should not reduce all talk about debts of good will to talk about justice.
Debts of gratitude are, in general, incurred by people who receive help or favors from others. But to say that a person has a debt of gratitude is not merely to say that he should be thankful for the assistance given. The indebtedness concerned is not confined to actual benefits received. In recognizing a debt of gratitude, one also recognizes the good will manifested by the benefactor in providing assistance or granting a favor.
For this reason, this paper refers to "debts of good will" instead of "debts of gratitude." The contention is that the former terminology focuses attention on important features of the concept that the words "debt of gratitude" fail to capture.
Another reason for the use of the preferred term in this paper is that the equivalent of "good will" in the Filipino language – kagandahang loob – has an important significance in related ethical theory.
On the one hand, in order to endure the “pressure of existence,” qualities such as pity, patience, humility and compassion become commendable. In this sense, “slave morality is essentially a morality of utility,” as it promotes qualities that would comfort and placate those who are living in pain. In another sense however, these aforementioned qualities are revered because the people are afraid of one another. The nobles valued and maintained some of “the highest and strongest drives, [which can] drive the individual far above the average and the flats of the herd conscience, wreck the self-confidence of the community, its faith in itself, and it is as if its spine snapped.” Wishing to prevent any possible danger to the stability of the community, the virtues of the nobles, which elevate the individual over the community, are condemned as evil. Since everyone is in fear of each other, slave morality is used to ensure that no one tries to subjugate the
White collar and corporate crimes are crimes that many people do not associate with criminal activity. Yet the cost to the country due to corporate and white collar crime far exceeds that of “street” crime and benefit fraud. White collar and corporate crimes refer to crimes that take place within a business or institution and include everything from Tax fraud to health and safety breaches.
This led Grant and Dutton to observe three main things. The first being reciprocity; A sense of obligation to help that person who helped us and reflect on what we have received from the person. The second, is a feeling of dependency and shame in reflecting on what we have received from others. Finally, short-term emotional behavior. Researchers wondered if thinking about the times when we gave something to others might be more effective in promoting aid. Therefore, both researchers hope to find and hope that in reflecting on the granting of benefits to other people will produce a greater increase in prosocial behavior.
The following analysis deals with the nature and source of evil and whether, given our innate motives and moral obligation, we willingly choose to succumb to our desires or are slaves of our passion. From this argument, I intend to show that our human nature requires that we play into our desires in order to affirm our free will. This is not to say that our desires are necessarily evil, but quite the opposite. In some sense, whatever people actually want has some relative value to them, and that all wanted things contain some good. But given that there are so many such goods and a whole spectrum of varying arrangements among them, that there is no way we can conceive anything as embodying an overall good just because it is to some degree wanted by one or a group of persons. In this light, there arises conflict which can only be resolved by a priority system defined by a code, maybe of moral foundations, which allows us to analyze the complexities of human motivation. I do not intend to set down the boundaries of such a notion, nor do I want to answer whether it benefits one to lead a morally good life, but rather want to find out how the constructs of good and evil affect our freedom to choose.
In the todays century, the responsibilities, roles, and opportunities for nursing and nurse education has grown abundantly to that of modern day nurses. Many nurses in the eighteen century were not educated nurses and never attended nursing school; however, they still provided care for the sick, poor, and needy and played a vital role in health maintenance. With the hard work from many notable nurses in history such as Florence Nightingale, Clara Barton, and Isabel Robb and the persistence and dedication for change from influential nurses such as Mary Mahoney and Mabel Staupers; nursing today has transformed in many aspects of practice. Although nursing as a profession is continuously evolving throughout the years, the core foundation of nursing hasn’t changed in that nursing is a profession of caring for others and servicing those in need.
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White-collar crime, a term first coined by American criminologist Edward Sutherland, is used to describe “an act committed to exploit social, economic, or technological power for personal or corporate gain” (Levenson). This type of crime is committed by individuals in high business or political rank and status, white-collar referring to their sophisticated corporate attire. Many white-collar individuals are infamous for their crimes, which prior to getting caught, resulted in them amassing large sums of money. White-collar crime is among the fastest- growing types of crime in the world, and years ago, was viewed as a less serious type of crime, as white-collar criminals are typically not violent. In recent years, however, there has been a growing recognition of its harm to society as a whole. In the United States alone, white-collar crime has resulted in at least ten times the combined cost of theft, burglary, and robbery of blue-collar criminals. White-collar crime is finally receiving more attention for the negative effect that it has on society, and these offenders are receiving justly harsh sentences.
We live in an imperfect world where things can inevitably go wrong although our actions meant well. Ethical actions should not be judged by a good outcome rather by a good will. Ethics are principles of right and wrong that guide a body of professionals on how to conduct their duties. In this paper good will is explained as an act of kindness towards oneself. This essay will explore the deontological moral theory by Kant in relation to utilitarianism by Mill.