Continuing budget cuts on mental health care create negative and detrimental impacts on society due to increased improper care for mentally ill, public violence, and overcrowding in jails and emergency rooms. Origins, of mental health as people know it today, began in 1908. The movement initiated was known as “mental hygiene”, which was defined as referring to all things preserving mental health, including maintaining harmonious relation with others, and to participate in constructive changes in one’s social and physical environment (Bertolote 1). As a result of the current spending cuts approaching mental health care, proper treatment has declined drastically. The expanse of improper care to mentally ill peoples has elevated harmful threats of heightened public violence to society. Funding for mental health care comes from various sources. States typically derive the larger amount of their funds from Medicaid and state general funds that are administered by state mental health authorities. In 2007, 46% of funding was through Medicaid, and 40% of funding was through state general funds (Honberg et al. 2). Overall, states consistently assemble their budget from state general funds, federal Medicaid, federal block grants, and private grants (Honberg et al. 3). States obtain many services that fall under mental health care, and that treat the mentally ill population. These range from acute and long-term hospital treatment, to supportive housing. Other effective services utilized include crisis intervention teams, case management, Assertive Community Treatment programs, clinic services, and access to psychiatric medications (Honberg at al. 6). These services support the growing population of people living in the... ... middle of paper ... ...Concept of Mental Health." World Psychiatry (2008): 113-16. Www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMC. Web. 15 Dec. 2013. Cooper, Donna. "Cuts to Mental Health Services Could Lead to More Spree Killings." American Progress. Center for American Progress, 31 July 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. Fisher, Nicole. "Mental Health Loses Funding As Government Continues Shutdown." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. Honberg, Ron, Sita Diehl, Darcy Grutatardo, and Mike Fitzpatrick. State Mental Health Cuts: A National Crisis. Rep. National Alliance on Mental Illness, 9 Mar. 2011. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. Jojic, Dr. Mirjana. "Will Budget Cuts Threaten Mental Health in Your State?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 10 Nov. 2011. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. Lippman, Daniel. "State Mental Health Cuts Hit Low-Income Patients Hard." Huffington Post. Huffington Post, 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world and of that over sixty percent of jail inmates reported having a mental health issue and 316,000 of them are severely mentally ill (Raphael & Stoll, 2013). Correctional facilities in the United States have become the primary mental health institutions today (Adams & Ferrandino, 2008). This imprisonment of the mentally ill in the United States has increased the incarceration rate and has left those individuals medically untreated and emotionally unstable while in jail and after being released. Better housing facilities, medical treatment and psychiatric counseling can be helpful in alleviating their illness as well as upon their release. This paper will explore the increasing incarceration rate of the mentally ill in the jails and prisons of the United States, the lack of medical services available to the mentally ill, the roles of the police, the correctional officers and the community and the revolving door phenomenon (Soderstrom, 2007). It will also review some of the existing and present policies that have been ineffective and present new policies that can be effective with the proper resources and training. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate that the criminalization of the mentally ill has become a public health problem and that our policy should focus more on rehabilitation rather than punishment.
The federal government stigmatized psychopathic patients by setting barriers to how psycho patients should get care. That is done to only mentally ill patients and not any other patients. The federal government does not provide support for States to take care or keep their psychiatric hospital and hospital beds. That prevent most patients from the care they need since there is no bed to keep them for a given period and take proper care of them. According to Tim Murphy, a child psychologist, "Congress has set two standards effectively telling the country that the mentally ill are less deserving of a decent life than others." Also, the federal government has not set rules to govern how parity law should affect Medicaid, the insurance of most low-income people in the country. Medicare law also discriminates against mentally ill people by limiting the number of days those patients can receive inpatient psychiatric care. "States had cut $5 billion from mental health services from 2009-2010, along with ten percent of psychiatric hospital beds and forty percent with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia received no treatment in the past year." Mental ill people don 't get the help they need when they seek to it; some don 't ask for heFailure to provide the proper care leave those people more vulnerable, lead them to city
Each year, 52 million Americans have some form of mental health problem and out of those patients 60% are members of a managed care group. (Madonna, 2000, ¶ 8) Managed mental health care’s successes and failures now bear directly on the mental wellbeing of 32 million particularly vulnerable Americans. Initially managed care was intended to be a “comprehensive approach to healthcare that included balancing cost, quality, utilization, and access.” (Madonna, 2000, ¶ 23) In theory, this is an optimal approach to the delivery of health care and it has proven somewhat successful in the area of physical health, but it has not provided the same success in the area of mental health. Mental health is still being treated as a separate and less important aspect of health care despite the fact that some mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia, have shown higher success rates than those of common medical procedure, such as angioplasty. (Etheredge, 2002, ¶ 6)
Until the middle of the last century, public mental health in the United States had been the responsibility, for the most part, of individual states, who chose to deal with their most profoundly mentally-ill by housing them safely and with almost total asylum in large state mental hospitals. Free of the stresses we all face in our lives, the mentally-ill faced much better prospects for peaceful lives and even recovery than they would in their conditions in ordinary society. In the hospitals, doctors were always accessible for help, patients were assured food and care, and they could be monitored to insure they never became a danger to themselves or others. Our nation’s state hospital system was a stable, efficient way to help improve the lives of our mentally disabled.
Poverty in mental health prevents patients from seeking out medical attention due to lack of insurance. “insurance coverage disparities make mental health care less accessible than other forms of health care” (Safran, 2011). Due to lack of insurance patients are not receiving adequate care, such as being evaluated, receiving the appropriate treatments, and not going to doctor follow up appointments to ensure proper care. Without receiving proper treatment, it can cause the patient condition to get worse and would not have a chance of a successful outcome. Also, poverty can cause additional stress and anxiety making the mental illness progress. “The stresses of living with someone who has a mental health problem may be particularly pronounced for families who live in resource poor areas where treatment options, accurate information, and social support may be limited.” (Bischoff, 2017). Lack of attention is another health disparities, due to lack of attention, there is limited funding sources to help mental health patients. Since there is a lack of funding these individuals are not getting the appropriate help that is needed. As well since mental health lacks attention and funding, there are limited mental health institutions, so people who need to be institutionalized may be required to be relocated to another city/state. We must try our best to provide all resources for our patients and
Wang, Philip S., Olga Demler, and Ronald C. Kessler. "Adequacy of Treatment for Serious Mental Illness in the United States." American Journal of Public Health 92.1 (2002): 92-98. Print.
“Insurance companies often cover mental illness in a more limited fashion than physical illness” (Christensen). The lack of mental health care provided for the mentally ill has been a growing issue in the US during the previous years, and there has been some progress. For example, there has been the Mental Health Care and Parity Law of 2008 that was enacted so that the insurers would cover mental illness just as they would cover other illnesses. In addition, the Affordable Care Act was enacted to enforce that the insurers abide by the rules. Unfortunately, that hasn’t helped much, hence: the sneaky behavior of insurance companies. This sneaky behavior seems to be unnoticed by the government the majority of the time unless the patient or his family decides to file a lawsuit. Until then, insurance companies have been constantly bending rules and finding loopholes to not pay insurance for mental illness.
On October 31, 1963, President Kennedy signed the Community Mental Health Act into law with the aim to change the delivery method of mental health care (National Council for Behavioral Health, 2013). The primary aim was to release the mentally ill from institutions and allow them to successfully integrate into functional members of society. In an effort to achieve this goal, delivery of care would be a coordination of effort from a network of outpatient clinics, community services, partial hospitalizations, and when needed emergency services. The funding for these services was to be from a combination of government, private programs and self-pay sources. However, due to the recent recession government sources reduced funds available for mental health services (Thomas). This economic reality coupled with an already fragmented health care system has left mental ill vulnerable. Patients that fall into the cracks in the system often end up in homeless shelters, jails/prisons or the morgue (Szabo, 2012).
If the United States had unlimited funds, the appropriate response to such a high number of mentally ill Americans should naturally be to provide universal coverage that doesn’t discriminate between healthcare and mental healthcare. The United States doesn’t have unlimited funds to provide universal healthcare at this point, but the country does have the ability to stop coverage discrimination. A quarter of the 15.7 million Americans who received mental health care listed themselves as the main payer for the services, according to one survey that looked at those services from 2005 to 2009. 3 Separate research from the same agency found 45 percent of those not receiving mental health care listing cost as a barrier.3 President Obama and the advisors who helped construct The Affordable Care Act recognized the problem that confronts the mentally ill. Mental healthcare had to be more affordable and different measures had to be taken to help patients recover. Although The Affordable Care Act doesn’t provide mentally ill patients will universal coverage, the act has made substantial changes to the options available to them.
The impetus for change to improve the healthcare services provided to individuals suffering from mental illness came about because the deinstitutionalization efforts begun in the 1970s were failing to properly assist this population (McLaughlin & McLauglin, 2008). McLauglin and McLauglin (2008) explain North Carolina’s four regional mental health hospitals were acting as independent entities and not working to provide better coordinated services to its’ local community mental health centers. They reveal local community mental health centers were not receiving the resources necessary to run effective rehabilitation programs for their patients (McLaughlin & McLauglin, 2008). Similar situ...
As of now, there is no general consensus that would require states to cover mental health (Cauchi, Landess, & Thangasamy 2011). Out of the 49 states that do cover mental illness, there are three main categories that vary considerably; mental health “parity” or equal coverage laws, minimum mandated mental health benefit laws, and mental health “mandated offering laws.” Mental illness is as serious a condition as any other health condition. It should be covered as such. Mental health parity has come a long way over the years. With health care reform underway, this issue is bound to come up. Hopefully the reform can enact a program that will lead to more mental health parity.
Those with mental illness would live in the community with an array of services and be able to be free from the constraints of confinement. In the early 1960’s the United States began an initiative to reduce and close publicly-operated mental hospitals. This became known as deinstitutionalization. The goal of deinstitutionalization was to allow people suffering from mental illness to live more independently in the community with treatments provided through community health programs. Unfortunately, the federal government did not provide sufficient ongoing funding for the programs to meet the growing demand. States reduced their budgets for mental hospitals but failed to increase funding for on-going community-based mental health programs. As a result of deinstitutionalization hundreds of thousands of mentally ill people were released into the community without the proper resources they needed for their treatment. (Harcourt,