Although there are several different theories surrounding criminology, they all share a common goal: the search for the causes of criminal behavior in the hopes that this information can be transformed into policies that will be effective in handling or even eliminating crime. Although it is a specialty, it's not a single discipline. It combines the efforts of statisticians, psychiatrists, sociologists, lawyers, police officials, and probation officers. Criminology centers its attention on the criminal as a person, his behavior, and what has led him or her to a life of crime. Criminology seeks to understand the criminals' genetic makeup, to learn whether there is an inherited tendency to crime.
Later research also focused on individual trait attributes in relation to criminality, but refined the use of more scientific methods to draw their conclusions. These studies were called micro-level theories because their concern was identifying how individual characteristics are related to their involvement in crime. These theories acknowledge that societal factors interact with biological traits, which may in turn produce crime. Some of these traits include low verbal IQ, attention deficit disorder, risk seeking and poor social and problem solving skills (Cullen & Agnew, 2011). Data has suggested that to some degree crime is inherited, and that genes likely contribute to certain traits that are conducive to crime (Ellis & Walsh, 1997) Gene theory suggest that some genes could evolve that predispose an individual to take advantage of the unselfish cooperative behavior of others (Badcock, 1986) Heart rates were also said to have a bearing on criminal dispositions.
Sociological deals with cause and control of criminality. The social structures, cultural values, peer groups, and family all make-up this approach. The biological approach deals with a person’s biological make-up such as heredity, neurotransmitter dysfunction, and brain abnormalities as major components in criminal behavior. Each approach consists of different methods of control, expression of behavior, and influences on criminal behavior. Situational and environmental factors provide setting and opportunity for crime to occur.
Biological, Social ecological and psychological model theories are key to helping researchers gain deeper comprehension of criminal behaviour and ways to avert them before they become a menace to society. All these theories put forward a multitude of factors on the outlooks on crime. All these theories have valid relevancy to continuous research on criminal behaviour.
In this research paper I will summarize three important theories of criminality. In criminology, examining why people commit crime is very important, but there is always a debate in how crime should be handled and prevented. The biological theory, focusses on the study of social behavior and structures. The sociological theory, evaluates crime as a social problem, and not as an individual problem. And psychological theory suggest that behavior of crime is the result of individual’s differences in thinking process.
The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished. Understanding crimes from inside out allows us to avoid breaking the law and being considered criminals. Most criminals have a reason to
Criminology is the wider area that is used to evaluate the context of crime. The scientific study of criminals and crime is used for evaluating the basis and reasons of crime done by people. It makes use of different theories and school of thought in order to analyse the reasons behind criminal activities. The main purpose of this paper is to consider one criminology theory or school of thought. The criminology theory that is used for analysing the requirements of this paper is rational choice theory.
Personal Criminological Theory Criminological theory is an overview of issues from research methods. Criminological theory is important due to the wide variety of crimes and criminals. This theory reviews and analyzes the way many individuals view crime historically. The criminal justice system is complex and requires research and knowledge of victimology, causations of crime, the crime itself, and criminals that commit these crimes. Scientists base their theories on two simple forms of criteria, which are using systematic observation and objective evidence and determining rational explanations of evidence.
The relationship between crime and intention To begin with, this paper will investigate the Crime and the different reasons why they are committed and whether or not those who commit certain crimes with good intentions are blameless or not. In order to determine if a crime is acceptable in certain situations or not the term “crime” has to be defined and the different motives why people commit crimes have to be clarified. Most people’s understanding of a crime is that it is an action punishable by society. According to Oxford dictionary, crime is “an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.” Although this is the most common and generally accepted definition, there are many ambiguities regarding what it is that defines an action that is punishable. Who determines what actions are punishable and what actions are not?
Such as self report surveys, official crime reports statistics or victimization data. When those other methodologies were used to produced evidence, the social control theory suffers (Williams &McShane, 2014). Social control theory contained pieces from differential association, social disorganization, and anomie theory which made it more attractive to several other criminologists (Williams &McShane, 2014). In general the social control theories were somewhat methodology bound (Williams &McShane, 2014). The social control theory was probably one of the theories that mostly matched the public conception of why people became criminals and more relatable.