Differential association is a theory based on the social environment and its surrounding individuals and the values those individuals gain from significant others in their social environment. According to Differential Association, criminal behavior is learned based on the interactions we have with others and the values that we receive during that interaction. We learn values from family, friends, coworkers, etc. ; those values either support or oppose criminal behavior. Sutherland also noted that individuals with an excess of criminal definitions will be more open to new criminal definitions and that individual will be less receptive to anti-criminal definitions.
Theorist Ronald Akers extended Sutherland’s differential association theory with a modern viewpoint known as the social learning theory. The social learning theory states that individuals commit crime through their association with or exposure to others. According to Akers, people learn how to be offenders based on their observations around them and their association with peers. Theorist Akers states that for one, “people can become involved in crime through imitation—that is by modeling criminal conduct. Second, and most significant, Akers contended that definition and imitation are most instrumental in determining initial forays into crime” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball 2011:57).
Though both social learning and social control theories address the socialization process, social learning theory maintains that humans are inherently good and are therefore taught delinquent behavior through the socialization process, just as they are any other behavior (McNamara 2014: pp. 115). Social learning theory holds that people become involved in criminal activity when the reasons, called definitions, to commit crime outweigh the definitions to abstain from it, which is normally determined by one’s social affiliations (McNamara 2014: pp. 118). For example, if a teenage boy hangs out with criminals and learns criminal behavior (including its rationalizations and reward) from them, then he will likely engage in criminal behavior because he will have more definitions for it than against it, according to the theory (McNamara 2014: pp.
Leading us to the point that the social control theory focuses on how the absences of close relationships with conventional others can free individuals from social constraints, thus enabling them to engage in delinquency (Kempf-Leonard, 2012). Labeling Theory The labeling theory is based off of the view that people will become criminals when labeled as such and when they accept that label as their personal identity. The labeling theory can be used to explain why a particular behavior is considered to be negatively deviant to some people, groups, and
We will compare both crime theories. It will also explain how these theories are related to specific crimes. The two theories discussed will also explain the policy implications. Finally, we will address what types of programs can be created to mitigate specific crimes related to the causation theories. Social learning theory is the theory that people learn from other people.
This club will prevent them from getting involve in crime and let them know about how bad juvenile delinquency is. This club will also have awareness on youth crime. Bilderaya (2005) found that the main reason for this program is to improve relation between peers and make school a better place to study. There will be a session that involves counselor to give a talk on those who have or had been doing crime for a long period of time. The session will mainly talk about the badness of youth crime, what are the after effects if they are too obsessed in doing offences and let them know that there are people who succeed in their life with the background of a former criminal.
Malice is also a factor dealing with an individual's values. The American Heritage Dictionary defines malice as "the intent, without just cause or reason, to commit a wrongful act that will result in harm to another." Since juvenile offenders have to have malice to commit their crimes, they should be punished to the fullest extent of the... ... middle of paper ... ...e punishment is not strict enough because of a criminal being tried as a juvenile, the balance of society remains upset and the basic needs of the victim have not been met by the government. In conclusion, juvenile offenders should be tried as adults. Adult classification enables the judicial system to punish offenders to the fullest extent of the law.
Gottfredson and Hirsch’s self-control theory revolves around one’s inclination to commit a crime or refrain from committing a crime based on low or high self-controls. It is a general crime theory that explains all crime at all periods in time. The principal factor is self- control. In this theory, a person with low self-control is much more likely to commit a crime then a person with high self-control. For Gottfredson and Hirsch’s definition of crime, they state that a crime is an act undertaken in a person’s pursuits of self-interests.
This theory explains how individuals learn to become criminals, and doesn’t focus on why they become criminals in the end. Sutherland 's theory of differential association has 9 key points that he focused on: “Criminal behavior is learned. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes simple; (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
The writer will describe and give examples of the three perspectives of viewing crimes. The perspectives that will be highlighted are the consensus view, the conflict view or the interactionist view. Each perspective maintain its own interpretation of what constitutes criminal activities and what causes people to engage in criminal behaviors (Siegel, p.12). The Consensus View of Crime describes that crimes are basically behaviors that are believed to be extremely distasteful or unacceptable, in many, if not all elements related to society. Substantive criminal law, which is the written code that defines crimes and their punishments, reflect mainstream society’s values, opinions beliefs (Siegel, p.12).