Many aspects of European life changed as a result of “the Black Death.” Not least among these changes was the shift that occurred among the economic standing of the medieval family and the ultimate “ushering out” of the feudalistic age. Prior to the plague, society in Europe remained largely feudalistic. Kings had their lords, lords their dukes, dukes their barons, and so on and so forth, with the majority, the peasants, sitting at the bottom virtually providing for all the nobility above them. Providing for the masters of the land was not easy for the peasants, taxes here and there kept there worth low, and their only assets to begin with were the little they had, “their land, family labor, and capital…” (Hanawalt, p112) Regrettably, for the nobles, things began to shift in the economic make up of Europe. As a noble, one was expected to maintain an army at call in return for land received from the king.
The word “Renaissance” is defined as rebirth or revival. In the European civilization, the renaissance of art, literature, painting, music shared in certain trends and influences. When we talked about the Renaissance, we generally mean the period of western European history from 1400 to 1600. The Renaissance gradually spreads through Italy and Western Europe. As it did, people grew interested in giving new life to Greek and Roman styles of art and architecture.
The fact is nearly half of the poor populations of working age do work even if it is minimal and millions of them work full-time. The decline in wages is very hard on families with dependent children. Because of changes in our economic structure availability of well-paying blue collar jobs in manufacturing companies is limited. Most industries are outsourcing to other countries to minimize labor costs and using machines to replace workers. Therefore younger adults, particularly those who have very little education are forced to work in service oriented jobs for lower pay, no benefits and no chance for promotion.
Although mortality rates did experience a decline in the cities, those who lived on the countryside had a lower life expectancy due to their exposure to contaminated air and water. Because of the high concentration of people in rural areas after the population boom, at least 90 percent of peasants lived with only enough pay to feed themselves and their families. This issue continued to grow with the unexpected population change. In addition, there was a shortage of jobs which put many lower class citizens at a disadvantage in finding work with which they could support their families. Because peasants were so desperate for work, they were easily led into the revolutionary forces.
The Italian Renaissance was the start of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change. Italy in this time was very wealthy yet very unstable due to strikes and revolts by Italian textile workers. It was during this period of instability that the first Renaissance figures, such as “Dante and Petrarch lived” (Italian renaissance 3), and the first works of Renaissance art were not seen until the opening half of the 14th century. The 14th cent... ... middle of paper ... ...two different cultures to become one of the most memorable and talked about events in European history. The Italian Renaissance taught many lessons to the English lessons that were used to strengthen and nurture a new stronger more diverse English culture.
The historical context of the Renaissance and what it involved The renaissance was mainly a cultural movement which happened around between the 14th century and the 17th century. It began in Florence, Italy during the late middle ages and then spread around the whole of Europe. Renaissance can be labelled as a time when the interest for classical learning and values became a very big one. The renaissance era saw and witnessed the discoveries and also explorations of new continents, the replacement of the “Copernican” system of astronomy by the “Ptolemaic” system of astronomy, the ending of the medieval hierarchy system, the development and growth of commerce and it also saw the creation and application of many important inventions like paper, printing, a mariner’s compass and gunpowder. For the thinkers and also scholars of that age it was a time for the revival of classical learning and wisdom following an extended period of cultural decline and also inactivity.
From a political perspective, the Renaissance created a division and a competitive nature between the European countries, along with the formation and expansion of the mercantile system. The rediscovery of ancient Greek works, especially those of Plato, were a great encouragement to the Renaissance. The foundation was laid for the revival of Greek works in 1397 when the city of Florence invited Manuel Chrysoloras, a well-known scholar from Constantinople, to come and promote Greek learning. Through his years of teaching, he greatly spread Greek learning and knowledge. In 1439, this revival was continued by the Council of Ferrara-Florence, which met to negotiate the reuniting of the Eastern and Western churches.
It was commonly known that Renaissance developed in Northern Europe later, in 16th century. The rebirth is used to mark an era of extensive cultural achievement as a result of renewed interest in the classical art and ideas of Ancient Greece and Rome. The most important idea of rebirth stays with the belief that through learning of intellectual and artistic treasures of the Greco-Roman antiquity could reach the artistic greatness, wisdom and enlightenment. The rediscovery of classical world drastically changed the art of painting. By the year 1500, the Renaissance revived ancient forms and content.
Most of the those who fall bellow the poverty line are African Americans and Hispanics. This is because they are placed in low paying jobs. As more and more people immigrate into the country, there are less and less jobs to go around. This creates a larger poverty gap. People just coming here to America are placed in very low-income jobs.
Arriving with little money and no skills, outside of agriculture skills, had to take low paying factory jobs and live in the slums (Lecture 11). The Irish took jobs native American didn’t want like building the railroad and canals, common laborers, servants, longshoremen and factory operators (Give Me Liberty 335). While the Germans who were fleeing political upheaval, arrived with a little more money in their pockets were able to buy land and start their own business (Lecture 11). They established themselves as craftsmen, shop keepers, and farmers and lived in tight knit communities in eastern cities (Give Me Liberty